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Chapter 1

Anatomy the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
Physiology the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery
3 types of gross Anatomy Systemic, Regional, and Surface
Systemic gross anatomy of the body studied by system
Regional all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg)
Surface study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin
Microscopic Anatomy Use of Microscopes
Histology study of tissues
Developmental Anatomy Traces structural changes throughout life
Cytology study of the cell
Embryology study of developmental changes of the body before birth
Specialized branches of Anatomy -Radiology -Tumor -Eye, ophthalmology -Brain -Pathology
Pathological anatomy study of structural changes caused by disease
Radiographic anatomy study of internal structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures such as X-ray, MRI, and CT scans
Molecular biology study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level
Topics of Physiology -Considers the operation of specific organ systems -Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level
Complementarity of Structure and Function 1. Function always reflects structure 2. What a structure can do depends on its specific form, e.g. teeth, hollow GI system. 3. principle of complementarity of structure and function
The body’s organization ranges from atoms to the entire organism
Chemical atoms combined to form molecules
Cellular – cells are made of molecules
Tissue – consists of similar types of cells
Organ – made up of different types of tissues
Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together
Organismal – made up of the organ systems
What are the requirements for life? 1. Maintaining Boundaries 2. Movement 3. Responsiveness 4. Digestion 5. Metabolism 6. Excretion 7. Reproduction 8. Growth and mature
Maintaining boundaries the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment 1. Cellular level – accomplished by plasma membranes 2. Subcellular level – e.g. lysosome, Golgi apparatus, nucleus 3. Organismal level – accomplished by the skin
Movement – locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis), and contractility
Responsiveness ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them
Digestion breakdown of ingested foodstuffs
Metabolism all the chemical reactions that occur in the body
Excretion removal of wastes from the body
Reproduction cellular and organismal levels -Cellular – an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells -Organismal – sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person
Growth and maturation increase in size of a body part or of the organism, organ systems functions mature for survival.
Integumentary System -Forms the external body covering -Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails -Protects deep tissues from injury, absorption and synthesizes vitamin D
Skeletal System -Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments -Protects and supports body organs -Provides the framework for muscles (lever system) -Site of blood cell formation -Stores minerals, e.g. Ca2+ , P
Muscular System -Composed of muscles and tendons -Allows bones across the joints,locomotion, and facial expression, etc -Maintains posture, upright, bending,lying down -Produces heat
Nervous System -Composed of the brain, spinal column,and nerves -Is the fast-acting control system of the body -Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands
Cardiovascular System -Composed of the heart and blood vessels -The heart pumps blood -The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body
Lymphatic System -Composed of red bone marrow,thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels -Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood -Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream -Houses white blood cells involved with immunity -Transport
Respiratory System -Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs -Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
Digestive System -Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver -Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood -Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces
Urinary System -Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra -Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body -Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood
Male Reproductive System -Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens -Main function is the production of offspring -Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones -Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract
Female Reproductive System -Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina -Main function is the production of offspring -Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones -Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus
Survival Needs Nutrients, Oxygen, Water, Normal body temperature, and Atmospheric pressure
Nutrients – needed for energy and cell building
Oxygen – necessary for metabolic reactions
Water – provides the necessary environment for chemical reactions
Normal body temperature – necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates
Atmospheric pressure – required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs
Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback
hemeo – all alike; stasis – static, stable.
Homeostasis Ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world
The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of Equilibrium
Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain Homeostasis
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Body has set points in the nerve system, e.g. HR, temperature, pH, osmosis, etc. -Variables produce changes to deviate from the set points
The three interdependent components of control mechanisms: -Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli) -Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintained -Effector – provides the means to respond to stimuli
Positive Feedback -In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus -Urination, parturition. -Example: Regulation of blood clotting
Homeostatic Imbalance -Disturbance of homeostasis or the body’s normal equilibrium -Overwhelming the usual negative feedback mechanisms allows destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over -seesaw symbol is the symbol of homeostatic imbalance.
Anatomical Position Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body
Directional Terms Terminology used to describe the location of an organ in relation to other organs or the body midline.
Are used in two fundamental divisions, axial and appendicular
Sagittal divides the body into right and left parts
Midsagittal or medial sagittal plane that lies on the midline
Frontal or coronal divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse or horizontal (cross section) divides the body into superior and inferior parts
Oblique section cuts made diagonally
Planes divide body into two equal or unequal parts.
Anatomical Variability -Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy -Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but: Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place -Small muscles may be missing -Extreme anatomical variatio
Two major body cavities: dorsal cavity and ventral cavity each cavity has several subdivision.
Dorsal Cavity Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two connected subdivisions, Both cavity contains cerebrospinal fluid
Cranial cavity within the skull, encases the brain
Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column, encases the spinal cord
Ventral Cavities Ventral cavity is divided into thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity. Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera)
Thoracic cavity is subdivided into two pleural cavities mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity
Pleural cavities each houses a lung
Mediastinum contains the pericardium, heart, esophagus, superior vena cava, aorta, trachea, bronchia
Pericardial cavity pericardium encloses the heart
The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm
The abdominopelvic cavity is composed of two subdivisions: -Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs -Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
Ventral Body Cavity Membranes -Parietal serosa lines internal body walls -Visceral serosa covers the internal organs -Serous fluid separates the serosae
Abdominopelvic Quadrants -Right upper quadrant -Left upper quadrant -Right lower quadrant -Left lower quadrant
Other Body Cavities -Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs -Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose -Orbital – house the eyes -Middle ear – contains bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations -Synovial – joint cavities
Created by: Oliha1974
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