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Unit3 Vocab+Danielle

Plate Tectonics

Asthenosphere The very upper layer of the mantle, and maybe the lowest part of the crust, that is solid that sometimes acts like a liquid (like silly putty or hot wax)
Subduction The process that occurs at convergent boundaries where, when the two plates collide, the denser of the two sinks below the plate that is less dense
Seafloor Spreading The theory that explains how new oceanic crust is formed in mid-ocean ridges, the old oceanic crust spreads out, and then it destroyed at deep sea trenches to start the cycle again;this theory gave the "why" to Wegener's theory of continental drift
Mantle Convection The process that occurs in the mantle that is the driving force of tectonic plates; hotter material rises because the atoms spread out making it less dense and the cooler material sink because the atoms get closer together making it more dense (repeats)
Ridge Push The process where the older oceanic crust/seafloor sink, the the weight of the uplifted/higher ridge pushes the oceanic plate toward the trench that was formed at the subduction zone
Slab Pull The process where the weight of the subducting plate pulls that connecting/trailing slab into the subduction zone
Lava The molten rock that is outside of the Earth
Magma The molten rock that is inside of the Earth
Tectonic Plate The massive, irregularly shaped pieces/slabs of solid rock
Theory of Continental Drift A theory (believed idea) that was first proposed by Alfred Wegener that all current continents were once joined together in a supercontinent called Pangaea and slowly drifted apart
Convergent Boundary The area where two (2) tectonic plates are moving TOWARD each other; three types: oceanic - continental, oceanic - oceanic, and continental - continental; features include trenches, volcanoes, subduction zone, mountains, etc...
Divergent Boundary The area where two (2) tectonic plates are moving AWAY from each other; features are mid-ocean ridges and rift valleys; Ex. Red Sea
Transform Boundary The area where two (2) tectonic plates slide roughly past each other building up pressure which can cause earthquakes; features are faults; Ex. San Andreas Fault
Hot spot Hot areas of Earth's mantle where very hot/high-temperature "tunnels" of magma rise to the surface
Epicenter (in regards to earthquakes) The point on Earth's surface directly above the focus; where surface waves originate from
Focus (in regards to earthquakes) The area where the waves originate from during an earthquake (point of failure)
Pangaea The supercontinent that all of the current continents are thought to have broken away from; mean "all the earth"
Geohazard Something that can happen geologically (mudflow, landslides, etc...) that can cause property damage or potentially injure/harm people
Reverse Fault Formed from horizontal and vertical compression that squeezes the rock and creates a shortening of the crust; causes rock on side of reverse fault to be pushed up relative to the other side; convergent plate boundaries
Strike-slip Fault Caused by horizontal shear; Ex. San Andreas Fault; can be found/are similar to transform boundaries
Normal Fault Movement is partially horizontal and partially vertical; pulls rock apart and stretches the crust; one side of the fault moves down relative to the other side; similar to/are divergent boundaries
Compression Stress that decreases the volume of a material
Tension Stress that pulls a material apart
Shearing Stress(ing) that causes a material to twist
Felsic Lighter colored rocks/minerals
Mafic Darker colored rocks/minerals