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Unit 3 Vocab Alex.H

Plate Tectonics

TermDefinition
Asthenosphere The layer above Earth's mantle
Subduction Process by which one tectonic plate slips beneath another tectonic plate.
Seafloor Spreading The hypothesis that new ocean crust is formed at mid ocean ridges and destroyed at deep sea trenches it occurs in a continuous cycle of magma intrusion and spreading
Mantle convection A driving mechanism of plate movements
Ridge push Tectonic process associated with convection currents in Earth's mantle that occurs when the weight of an elevated ridge pushes an oceanic plate toward a subduction zone
Slab pull Tectonic process associated with convection currents in Earth's mantle that occurs as the weight of the subducting plate pulls the trailing lithosphere into a subduction zone.
Lava Magma that flows out onto Earth's surface
Magma Slushy mix of molten rock and dissolved gases and mineral crystals
Tectonic Plate Huge pieces of Earth's crust that cover its surface and fit together at their edges
Theory of Continental Drift Pangaea, them drifting apart.
Convergent Boundary Places where two tectonic plates are moving toward each other; is associated with trenches,island arcs and folded mountains
Divergent Boundary Places where two of Earth's tectonic plates are moving apart; is associated with volcanism, earthquakes, and high heat flow, and is found primarily on the seafloor
Transform Boundary A region where two plates slide horizontally past each other
Hot Spot Hot regions of Earth's mantle
Epicenter Point on Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
Focus Point of the initial fault rupture where a earthquake originates that usually lies at least several kilometer beneath Earth's surface
Pangaea Ancient landmass made up of all the continents that began to break apart about 200 mya
Geohazard Natural disasters caused by Earth (landslides)
Reverse Fault A fault due to horizontal and vertical compression that squeezes rock and creates a shortening of the crust
Strike-Slip Fault A fault caused by horizontal shearing
Normal Fault Standard value for a location,including rainfall, wind speed, and temperatures, based on meteorological records compiled for at least 30 years
Compression Stress that decreases the volume of a material
Tension Stress that pulls a material apart
Shearing Stress that causes material to twist
Felsic An igneous rock that is defined as a light colored rock
Mafic An igneous rock that is defined as a dark colored rock
Created by: Alexanderh_