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Chapter 4; patho

Cellular Injury, Aging death

Dry gangrene Form of coagulative necrosis characterized by blackened, dry, wrinkled tissue separated by a line of demarcation from healthy tissue
Gangrene -Cellular death in a large area of tissue -Results from interruption of blood supply to a particular part of the body
Wet Gangrene oForm of liquefactive necrosis oTypically found in internal organs oCan be fatal
Gas gangrene oResults from infection of necrotic tissue by anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium) oCharacterized by formation of gas bubbles in damaged muscle tissue oCan be fatal
Apoptosis Programmed cell death
DNA damage, Mitochondrial Damage, High lvls of P53 Internal pathways that Apoptosis can be triggered by
Ischemia Re perfusion Injury oCalcium overload which can lead to apoptosis oOccurs because ATP stores are depleted and cell is unable to control ion flux across the membrane oFormation of free radicals (oxygen radicals) oSubsequent inflammation
Somatic Death death of the entire organism
Programmed senescence theory Aging is the result of intrinsic genetic program
Free radical theory Aging results from cumulative and progressive damage to cell structures
Arteriosclerosis HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE •Loss of elasticity, accumulation of collagen •Thickening of arteriolar walls •Increased peripheral resistance •Tissue ischemia
Atherosclerosis HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE •Hyperlipidemia •Accumulation of cholesterol in walls of large arteries •Increased peripheral resistance •Tissue ischemia •Causes of angina, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, strokes
Osteoporosis Loss of calcium and bone mass Higher incidence in postmenopausal women Fractures of spine, pelvis, and limbs common
Risk Factors of Osteoporosis Hereditary predisposition Decreased estrogen levels Sedentary or inactive lifestyle Decreased intake of calcium, vitamins C and D Decreased intestinal calcium absorption
Created by: karylene