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Biology Ch. 11

TermDefinition
Genetics scientific study of heredity
Fertilization process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.
Trait specific characteristic of an individual
Hybrid offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Gene sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait; factor that is passed from parent to offspring.
Allele one of a number of different forms of a gene.
Principle of Dominance Mendel's second conclusion, which states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.
Segregation separation of alleles during gamete formation
Gamete sex cell
Probability likelihood that a particular event will occur
Homozygous having two identical alleles for a particular gene
Heterozygous having two different alleles for a particular gene
Phenotype physical characteristics of an organism
Genotype genetic makeup of an organism
Punnett square diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross.
Independent assortment one of Mendel's principles that states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
Incomplete dominance situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
Codominance situation in which the phenotypes produced both by both alleles are completely expressed.
Multiple allele a gene that has more than two alleles
Polygenic trait trait controlled by two or more genes
Homologous term used to refer to chromosomes in which one set comes from the male parent and one set comes from the female parent.
Diploid term used to refer to a cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes
Haploid term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes.
Meiosis process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
Tetrad structure containing four chromatids that forms during meiosis
Crossing-over process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
Zygote fertilized egg
Created by: rhacker