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Core Neuroanatomy Ob

afferent (sensory) somatosensation - sensory experiences with skin, bones/muscles (touch, pain, temperature), special senses (vision, hearing, smell, taste, vestibular sense), visceral sensation
efferent (motor) instructions to targets outside CNS, to SKELETAL muscle, voluntary, reflex automatic and outside cortical control, this is GSE smooth muscle cardiac muscle and glands are in autonomic nervous system, reflex, GVE
primary afferent SENSORY neuron (axons or nerve fibers), brings info (AP) from PNS to CNS, cell body in sensory ganglion, all cell parts ipsilateral, always excitatory, transduce information about mechanical, thermal, & chemical states of body
divergence (parallel processing) in sensory systems having some neuron branch and go in different locations for different purposes
lower motor neuron (LMN) axon caries information (AP) from CNS to skeletal muscle (NMJ), cell body inside CNS, all parts ipsilateral, always excitatory (ACh), voluntary and reflex movement via LMN
upper motor neuron (UMN) cell body in brain, influences LMN, voluntary AND reflex movements via UMN
role of reflex arc neural pathway that controls a reflex. In vertebrates, most sensory neurons don't pass directly to brain, but synapse in spinal cord. This allows for faster reflex actions to occur by activating spinal MN without delay of routing signals through brain
voluntary movement cortical, contralateral cortex influences voluntary movement
reflex movement outside of cortical involvement and stereotypical response to given sensory input
paralysis absence of voluntary movement
neuromuscular junction specialized synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle, excitatory and cholinergic (ACh is the neurotransmitter), sometimes called myoneural junction
paresis weakness of VOLUNTARY movement
what does the CNS do process SENSORY info, issue MOTOR commands, coordinate HOMEOSTASIS, "higher processes"
sensory functions info to drive REFLEXES, conscious perception, emotional valence (not all stimuli pleasant), feedback for motor coordination
divergence having some neuron branch and go in different locations for different purposes (reflex and conscious responces)
conscious processing of somatosensory input contralateral to source of input
anesthesia lack of any conscious sensation
analgesia lack of conscious pain sensation
why CONSCIOUS? you prevent pain at the conscious level, but not in the pain pathways
vast majority of reflexes have at least one interferon, must draw 3
Created by: eew888



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