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Communicat in NS Obj

components of synapse The presynaptic ending that contains neurotransmitters. The synaptic cleft between the two nerve cells. The postsynaptic ending that contains receptor sites.
neuromuscular junction NMJ, chemical synapse formed by contact between motor neuron and skeletal muscle (voluntary). Acetylcholine (ACh) is rebased by neuron to the motor muscle. Effect is depolarizing - becomes excitatory with ACh
excitation less negative, more positive. May promote release of chemical signal (neurotransmitter)
inhibition more negative
calcium ions engages synaptic channels and admits Ca2+
6 steps of the release of neurotransmitter action potential arrives, calcium ion channels open and admit Ca2+, synaptic vesicles fuse to presynaptic membrane, neurotransmitters bind to post synaptic receptors, post synaptic change ions flow through, and termination of signal (turn off synapse)
disinhibition presence of negatively charged neuron (inhibitory) makes next neuron less negatively charged (inhibitory), which makes the next neuron excitatory. One neuron inhibits the inhibition of another neuron resulting in activation/facilitation
acetylcholine (ACh) "cholinergic", motor & autonomic neurons, in cerebrum & associated with mental alertness & learning (etc.), multiple receptor types (excitatory or inhibitory), nicotinic receptor (nAChR) always + & muscarinic receptor (mAChR) g protein linked either +/-
dopamine "catecholamine," effects by 2nd messenger, small brainstem uncle with widespread connections, motor functions (basal nuclei), D1 (excitatory) and D2 (inhibitory) receptors
GABA main INHIBITORY NT of brain, in spinal cord, main inhibitory NT is glycine
Glutamate main EXCITATORY NT of CNS, many receptor types, ion channels AMPA (fast response, Na) and NMDA (calcium conductance, 2nd messengers, long term )
norepinephrine "catecholamine and adrenergic," 2nd messenger effects, ANS & small brainstem nuclei with widespread connections
serotonin small brainstem nuclei with widespread connections, mood and alertness
neuropeptide transmitters small portions, more than 50 identified, many are also hormones elsewhere, all core leased with aminergic NTs, act by 2nd messengers, "neuromodulatory"
neurons are polarized
membrane potential more negative inside cell than out
neurons communicate by changes in membrane potential
excitation less neg/ more positive, promotes release fo neurotransmitter (chemical signal)
synapse where neurons communicate, mostly unidirectional
1st sending neuron presynaptic neuron
2nd receiving neuron postsynaptic neuron
inhibition more negative, less likely to produce signal
termination of signal diffusion (not as important), degradation (breaks down ACh in post synaptic), uptake with presynaptic membrane (reuse/repackage) glia (scavange), and in postsynaptic membrane
postsynaptic response determined by POSTYNAPTIC receptor, about the LOCK, not key, fast response is ligand-gated ion channels (changes polarity, slow response with 2nd messengers, )
summation all activity determine behavior of neuron - excitatory, inhibitory, and modulatory
Created by: eew888



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