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Overview of CNS Obje

QuestionAnswer
neuron basic working unit of the brain, a specialized cell designed to transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells
CNS vs PNS brain and spinal cord VS nerves and ganglia
grey matter collection of neuronal cell bodies, dense in neuronal cell bodies
white matter bundles of axons (has myelin on them)
spinal cord grey matter in CNS, collection of neuronal cell bodies
Cortices (s. cortex) cerebrum or cerebellum
nucleus cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem
tract white matter in CNS
nerve white matter in PNS
ganglia (ganglion) a structure containing a number of nerve cell bodies, typically linked by synapses, and often forming a swelling on a nerve fiber.
superior VS inferior at a higher position, towards the head VS at a lower position, towards the tail
anterior VS posterior on the front side VS on the back side
rostral anterior when referring to the cerebrum
medial towards the body midline
median on the midline
lateral toward he side
ipsilateral on the same side
contralateral on the opposite side
bilateral on both sides
dorsal superior when referring to the cerebrum
ventral anterior when referring to spinal cord and brainstem
coronal anterior and posterior sections
horizontal superior and inferior
sagittal right and left sides
midsagittal/median right and left side down the middle
transverse superior and inferior
afferent sensory - receives info and taken to brain
efferent motor (voluntary and autonomic), brain down CNS to PNS
somatic relating to body, skin and muscle
visceral guts (heart, lungs, glands)
somatic afferent touch, pain, body position sense, vision, hearing
somatic efferent voluntary movement (striated muscle)
visceral afferents sensation from guts, also smell and taste
visceral efforts autonomic functions like heart, intestines, glands, etc.
pseudo-unipolar (neuron) one extension from cell body. Contains an axon that has split into two branches; one branch travels to the peripheral nervous system and the other to the central nervous system. Starts unipolar and later fuses. Somatosensory neurons & sensory ganglia
bipolar (neuron) two extensions, one axon one dendrite, special senses
multipolar (neuron) vast majority of neurons in the body, single axon with many dendrites
pyramidal (neuron) cortical neurons, large cell body, projection neurons, looks like a pyramid
projection neurons axon goes from neuronal cell body in CNS to one or more distant regions of CNS
stellate (neuron) In spinal cord or brain, local connections, don't need big cell body, star shaped, interneurons with local connections. Granule cells found in granular layer of cerebellum, hippocampus, superficial dorsal cochlear nucleus, olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex
astrocytes (glia) helps neurons. ONLY found in CNS. Custodial staff of the CNS. (Pick up excess NT, electrical insulator, remove k+, phagocytosis, release glucose and trophic substances)
oligodendrocytes (glia) found in CNS, support and myelination of multiple axons
schwann cells (neurolemmocytes) (glia) found in PNS, produce the myelin sheath around neuronal axons
receptive zone soma and dendrites
soma neuron cell body that contains the nucleus
dendrites a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.
conducting zone consists of the axon, which sends outgoing information away from the cell body
axon portion of a nerve cell (neuron) that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body, may be militated to help transfer info faster
telodendrion end branches of the axon
Created by: eew888