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SLS Bio 12 DS- GN

SLS Bio 12 Digestive System - GN

TermDefinition
Absorption the process of intaking certain nutrients from sustenance
Anaerobic bacteria bacteria that does not require any oxygen to survive and grow.
Anus The opening at the end of digestive track and last part of the large intestine.
Appendix the appendix aids in immune function and is located at one of the ends of the large intestine.
Bile a fluid that aids in the digestion if lipids in the small intestine by mechanically emulsifying it. this bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
Capillary branching blood vessels that transport blood throughout the body
Cardiac Sphincter at the end of the esophagus that determines when food enters the stomach by contracting and loosening. it is called the cardiac sphincter because it is near the heart.
Chemical Digestion reactions that split up molecules, catalyzed by enzymes, so that their nutrients can be absorbed.
Digestive Enzymes enzymes that catalyze reactions to split up food so they can be easily digested.
Digestive Tract the tract that enters the mouth and leaves the anus involving all the organs in between.
Duodenum the first and shortest part of the small intestine. prepares food for the digestion further in in the small intestine.
Emulsification the act of chewing your food until it turns into a mush (bolus). this creates more surface area thus making the food more easy to be consumed and absorbed.
Epiglottis a flap in the throat that prevent food from going down the windpipe while swallowing
Esophagus a long muscular tube that food is transported through to get to the stomach. it is very flexible and can mechanically move food down through contractions.
Gall Bladder where bile is stored.
Gastric Juice a juice that is produced by the gastric glands. it contains enzymes to break up proteins (pepsin), HCL, and mucus to protect the stomach against a low pH
Hydrochloric Acid (HCL) an acidic liquid used for corroding (breaking up) food.
Insulin hormone that regulates blood sugar levels by letting cells absorb sugar away from the blood
Intestinal Juice a liquid secreted in the small intestine that contains enzymes (lipase, pancreatic amylase, and lactase) and mucus. produced by the pancreas.
Lacteals lymphatic capillaries found in the microvillus that absorb lipids.
Large Intestine (colon) the last organ in the digestive track that absorbs water, salt, and vitamins (A, K, B12, )then secretes the rest.
Lipase the enzyme that digests lipids. turns them from fat droplets into fatty acids and glycerides. found in gastric juices (stomach), pancreatic juice (small intestine), intestinal juices, small intestine.
Liver biggest organ in the body. functions like detoxifying blood, creating blood plasma, managing blood cholesterol levels, creating urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide, stores iron & vitamins, stores glucose as glycogen, removes bilirubin, and produces bile
Maltase enzyme that breaks down maltose. with hydrolysis it produces to glucose molecules. can be found in the small intestine & mouth.
Microvillus bumps located on the small intestine that contain capillaries, and lymphatic capillaries. They are there to produce the surface area and to absorb the nutrients.
Nuclease enzyme that breaks down DNA & RNA into nucleotides using hydrolysis
Pancreas produces pancreatic juice & has exocrine/endocrine functions. endocrine function makes insulin & exocrine produces glucagon (hormone that increases blood glucose levels by breaking down glycogen)
Pancreatic Amylase enzyme made in pancreas that breaks down starch (amylose).
Pancreatic Juice aids in protecting against pathogens in the large intestine. produced by the pancreas
pepsin enzyme that breaks down proteins. is found in the stomach.
Pepsinogen is the inactive version of pepsin. gets turned into pepsin when an acidic environment is increased in the stomach due to hydrochloric acid
Peptidase enzyme that breaks down peptides into amino acids. found in the stomach.
Peristalsis the mechanical movement that your through does to push food down your esophagus.
pH the measurement of acidity or alkalinity in a solution.
Pharynx the passage that air and food pass through.
Physical Digestion the mechanical process of breaking down food like chewing or stomach churning
Protease breaks down protein while also helping blood clotting & cell division
Pyloric Sphincter the sphincter that releases chyme into the small intestine from the stomach when it opens
Rectum area where indigestible material is stored and bacteria digest it to get vitamins. when body is done with it, it is released out the anus
Salivary Amylase enzyme that digests starch (amylose) into maltose. found in salivary juice, produced in the salivary glands.
Salivary Gland releases gastric juice to break down food
Salivary Juice/Saliva released by the salivary gland. contains enzymes that diffuse starch and aid in lubricating the tract.
Small Intestine a tract that is segmented into 3 parts that absorbs nutrients and fight of antigens. absorbs nutrients from the chyme
Sodium Bicarbonate found in pancreatic juice & functions as a buffer in the small intestine to neutralize chyme.
Stomach Organ that breaks down food particles chemically and mechanically
Swallowing the reflex that occurs when intaking a bolus. closes the epiglottis so that no food get in your wind pipe.
Trypsin enzyme that breaks apart protein into peptides. produced by pancreas, found in the small intestine
Villus bumps on small intestine that absorb nutrients.
Created by: Graeme.N