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Science 10-1

Science 10-1 Final Exam Terms

WHMIS Workplace Hazardous Material Information System is a national hazard communication system that provides information on the safe use of hazardous products in Canadian workplaces
SDS Saftey Data Sheet is a sixteen section document that informs you of the chemical name, formula, chemical precautions, handling, disposal, and more
Chemistry The study of substances, their structure, properties, and changes that can occur to the substance
Physical Properties Describes the physical appearance and composition of a substance
Physical Change A change in size, shape or state. It still has all the same physical properties
Chemical Properties Describes the reactivity of a substance
Chemical Change A substance changes from one type of matter to another
Matter Anything that has a mass and occupies space
Pure Substances All particles of one substance are the same. (have the same chemical and physical properties) Two types
Element All of these are found on the periodic table of elements
Compound Two or more chemically combined elements
Mixtures Combination of pure substances (not chemically combined). Four types
Solutions -Homogeneous mixture -Looks similar throughout -soft drinks (dissolved sugar)
Mechanical Mixture -Heterogeneous mixture -All parts are clearly visible -soil
Suspension -Heterogeneous Mixture -The parts are in different states -mud: soil (solid) and water (liquid
Colloid -Homogeneous mixture -Similar to solution but more difficult to separate -larger particles
Homogeneous mixture A mixture that looks like one substance
Heterogeneous Mixture A mixture where the different parts are visable
Methods of Separation: Filtration Separates a liquid from a solid
Methods of Separation: Distillation Separates a solution (homogeneous mixture)
Methods of Separation: Electrolysis Breaks a compound apart using electricity
Characteristics of a Chemical Reaction 1. Produces a new substance with different chemical/physical characteristics 2. A gain or release of energy-exothermic/endothermic 3. Gas forms (bubbles) 4. Precipates form (solid forms) 5. Cloudiness (solid forming just not falling
Endothermic Reaction Heat enters the system -breaking chemical bonds is an endothermic reaction
Exothermic Reaction Heat exits the system -forming new chemical bonds is an exothermic reaction
Protons -Positively charged particles found inside the nucleus of the atom -# of ________=atomic number -Never change for any given element ex) oxygen always has eight__________
Neutrons -The other particle found in the nucleus of the atom -carry no electrical charge -Atoms of an element that have a different number of _________ in the nucleus are called isotopes ex) C12 and C13
Isotopes Elements that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
Electrons -negatively charged particles that orbit around the outside of the nucleus -sharing of these forms chemical bonds -Elements are neutral, meaning they have the same number of protons to _________
Atomic Number Number of protons in any given element
Atomic Molar Mass -the mass of an element that is listed on the periodic table of elements -calculated as the average mass of all the isotopes of the element, taking percent abundance into account
Periodic Table of Elements Arranges elements into horizontal rows called periods(7) and vertical columns called groups(18)
Groups (periodic table of elements) -also called families -several of these have names; _____ one: Alkali Metals- most reactive; _____ 2:Alkaline Earth Metals; _____ 17:Halogens-most reactive non-metals; _____ 18: noble or inert gases- most non-reactive non-metals
Metals -Appear to the left of the dark "staircase" line -properties include: solid at room temp (except for mercury, which is liquid), shiny lustre, good conductors of heat and electricity, malleable, ductile
Non-metals -Appear to the right of the staircase -Properties include: gas, solid, and one liquid (bromine) at room temp, dull, poor conductors of heat and electricity, brittle and not ductile
Metalloids -borders the staircase and have some metallic and some non-metallic properties -properties include: some shiny, some dull, some conduct electricity (to an extent), poor conductors of heat, brittle, not ductile
Period Rules The period of an element = the number of occupied energy levels
Group Rules -Elements in the same group have the same # valence electrons
Ions a group of atoms that carry either a positive or negative electrical charge. All atoms tend towards chemical stability like the noble gases- their valence energy levels full. This is achieved by giving up, taking on, or sharing electrons.
Positive Ions Called a cation. Charge is achieved by giving up one or more electrons (-). There are now more protons (+) than electrons, giving it a positive charge
Negative Ions Called an anion. Charge is achieved by taking on one or more electrons (-). There are now more electrons than protons (+), giving it a negative charge
Naming of Anions Anions have names that end in "ide" Ex) Chloride
Ionic Compound -Compounds composed of ions -as two elements react, metal atoms loose one or more atoms to the non-metal, giving them opposite charges. The ions are now attracted to each other and form a very strong bond
-Binary Ionic Compounds are composed of just two elements: forms when a metal (cation) reacts with a non-metal (anion)
Crystal Lattice The regular repeating pattern that holds together cations and anions in an ionic compound
Molecular Compounds Are compounds composed of molecules, and contain only non-metal elements. Atoms form a covalent bond by sharing electrons
Single Covalent Bond A molecular bond that is formed when two atoms share a single pair of electrons (Cl2, H2O)
Double Covalent Bond A molecular bond that is formed when two atoms share two pairs of electrons (CO2)
IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists -insures every pure substance has a systematic name -gives information on whether a compound is ionic or molecular, the types of ions/elements it contains, and makes predictions regarding characteristics
Naming Binary Molecular Compounds First element to appear in the name is the one farthest to the left the suffix ide appears at the end of the second element Use prefixes to indicate how many atoms of each element are used
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds The first element in the name/formula is the metal (cation) The second element , the non-metal (anion) has the suffix ide No prefixes Chemical formula shows the simplest whole number ration= of each type of ion
Stock System A way ti distinguish the charge of a cation if multiple are given. Copper (I) would have a one positive charge, Copper (II) would have a two positive charge
Properties of Ionic compounds -have regular crystalline shapes with flat edges in the solid form -High melting point -As a solid, they do not conduct electricity -Conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water- they are electrolytes
Properties of molecular compounds -low melting point -once melted, can usually be heated further w/out decomposing -do not conduct electricity in any state
Acid A substance that reacts and releases hydrogen ions (H+)(aq) in water. HCl(aq) - hydrochloric acid H2SO4(aq) - sulfuric acid
Base A substance that dissolves in water and releases hydroxide ions (OH-)(aq) into the water. NaOH(aq) - sodium hydroxide KOH(aq) - potassium hydroxide (used in liquid soaps)
Properties of acids -corrodes metals -will burn skin- sulfuric acid (battery acid) -Turns blue litmus paper red -tastes sour -loos their acidic properties when mixed with a base -pH of less than 7
Properties of bases -taste bitter -many will burn skin - lye -feel slippery -turns red litmus paper blue -pH of more than 7
pH Scale uses numbers from 0-14 that expresses the quantity of hydrogen ions (H+) in each litre of solution. 7 is neutral, below 7 is acidic, above 7 is basic
chemical reactions occurs when one or more substances change to form a different compound
evidence of a chemical change -all chemical reactions involve a change of energy -odour change -colour change -formation of a gas (bubbles) -formation of a precipitate (solid)
law of conservation of energy -energy can be transferred from one form to another, but the total energy of the universe remains the same -energy cannot be created or destroyed
formation/synthesis reactions two or more reactants combine to produce a new product. typically exothermic. X + Y --> XY
decomposition reactions one compound breaks down into two or more simpler compounds or elements. typically endothermic. XY --> X + Y
Single replacement reactions one element replaces another element in a compound. A + BX --> AX + B
Double replacement reactions the cations of two different compounds exchange places, forming two new compounds. WX + YZ --> WZ + YX
Hydrocarbon combustion reactions -An organic compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon. -95% of hydrocarbons are burned as fuel. -When burned with a plentiful supply of oxygen, a complete combustion occurs hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + heat energy
Molecular Elements Because atoms of the same element can form bonds, some elements also exist as molecules. O2, H2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, P4, S8.
Light microscope types simple microscopes and compound microscopes
Simple microscope Only uses one lens, similar to a magnifying lens. Needs visual light to view objects
Compound Microscope -has two sets of lenses -can make objects appear 100-400 times larger, some as much as 1,000x
Electron microscope -specimens are illuminated with a beam of electrons instead of light. -extremley powerful; 1.2million times
Genes Directs the activities of our cells
DNA -found in the nucleus of every cell -constructed of thousands to millions of molecular subunits -adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine
Cause of most cancers Damaged genes
Mutations Changes in the sequence of the bases (AC GT) that increase a persons chances of developing cancer
Virus A non-cellular structure made up of a stretch of genetic material enclosed in a protein coat. When a virus takes over a cell it takes over the cells reproductive machinery and causes the host cell to produce more viruses
Prions A protein that converts from its normal form into a harmful particle
Cell culture A valuable technique in cancer and cell research. Isolated cells are placed in test tubes and supplied with nutrients needed for growth
cell lines The generation of cells that result from growth and division in each cell culture
Stem Cells "blank slate" cells that divide to produce all other types of specialized cells. Two sources are adult bone marrow and embryo cells. One use is injecting them into someone who suffers from heart failure
Organelles The different parts inside plant and animal cells that carry out specific functions
Cell membrane -semi-permeable, 2 layered membrane -regulates and controls passage of substances in and out of the cell -composed mainly of lipids and embedded with proteins that act as doors -can change shape can interact with other cells
Cytoplasm -jelly-like substance that fills the cell -medium in which many reactions occur
Nucleus -Direct the cells activities -contains DNA -Surrounded by a nuclear envelope that has nuclear pores that lets substances in and out
Nucleolus -Found within the nucleus -produces ribosomes
Ribosomes -makes proteins -exists as spots on the rough Endoplasmic reticulum or in chains in the cytoplasm
Lysosomes -Sac of digestive enzymes -suicide sacs-self destructs at a certain age -pH low (acidic) -digests waste particles -protects by killing infectious microrganisms
Endoplasmic Reticulum folded membranes surrounding the nucleus -rapidly transports material
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum -Is studded with ribosomes -ribosomes build proteins which are then packaged in vesicles for transport
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum -has no ribosomes -synthesizes lipids and packages them into vesicles for transport
Golgi Apparatus -stores, sorts, repackages and transports molecules -produces lysosomes
Mitochondria -"power house" of the cell -has a 2-layered membrane -produces energy -muscle cells need a lot of energy, thus have a lot of mitochondria
centrioles -cylindrical structures located just outside nucleus -in animal cells they play a role in cell division -not in plant cells
Chromatin -masses of DNA -contains genetic information -located in nucleus
Vacuole -storage house for water, food, minerals and waste -plant cells have a significantly larger vacuole that regulates the amount of water in the cell
Cell wall -rigid and supportive, giving cells their shape -made of cellulose -not found in animal cells
Chloroplasts -Where photosynthesis takes place -has two layers of membrane -inner layer contains green pigments called chlorophyll -only in plant cells
Phospholipids -fats that make up the cell membrane -has a head and tail -head is hydrophilic -tail is hydrophobic
Cell membrane proteins -membrane contains embedded proteins -helps move substances across the membrane and carry out chemical reactions -some have "marker" molecules for identification to protect the cell from infection
Brownian Motion The random, constant movement of tiny particles in liquids or air
Concentration Gradient Given time, molecules will move from an area of high concentration to low concentration
Osmosis The diffusion of water across a membrane
Solute Material being dissolved in a solution
Solvent material doing the dissolving in a solution
Hypotonic Solution Has a higher concentration of water out of the cell than in. Water will move into the cell
Hypertonic Solution Has a higher concentration of water in the cell than out. Water will move out of the cell
Facilitated Diffusion Enables larger molecules to diffuse over the membrane through proteins
Carrier protein Changes shape to allow molecules to diffuse
Channel protein Provides water filled passages which small dissolved ions can diffuse through
Active Transport The use of ATP energy to transport molecules against the concentration gradient
Endocytosis A form of active transport where the cell membrane forms a pocket around the material creating a vesicle which is transported to other parts of the cell. Phagocytosis-eating solids. Pinocytosis-drinking liquids
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis When a receptor on a membrane protein binds with an item for transport, it triggers endocytosis
Exocytosis Allows material stored in vesicles to exit the cell. This allows cells to dispose of wastes. Important for the secretion of hormones and enzymes
Advantages to being Multi-Cellular -larger size -variety of specialized cells -ability to thrive in a broader range of environments (adaptable)
Organization of Cells: Cells the most basic unit of organization in organisms
Organization of Cells: Tissues Clusters or groups of cells with the same structure and function
Organization of Cells: Organs Multiple tissues arranged in combination to perform a specific function
Organization of Cells: Systems Organs and tissues throughout a body perform a shared complex function
Photosynthesis carbon dioxide + water -(sun)-> glucose + oxygen
Created by: faithcwh



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