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Biology Ch 6 Vocab

Somatic cells Also called body cells, make up most of your body tissues and organs.
Gametes Sex cells.
Homologous chromosomes Two chromosomes that are exactly the same.
Autosomes Chromosome pairs 1 through 22.
Sex chromosomes Chromosomes that directly control the development of sexual characteristics.
Sexual reproduction The fusion of two gametes that results in offspring.
Fertilization The fusion of an egg and a sperm cell.
Diploid Means a cell has two copies of each chromosome.
Haploid Means that a cell has only one copy of each chromosome.
Meiosis A form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells.
Gametogenesis The production of gametes.
Sperm The male gamete.
Egg The female gamete.
Polar bodies Cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down.
Traits Distinguishing characteristics that are inherited, such as eye color, leaf shape, and tail length.
Genetics The study of biological inheritance patterns and variation in organisms.
Purebred Genetically uniform.
Cross The mating of two organisms.
Law of segregation Mendel's first law.
Gene A piece of DNA that provides a set of instructions to a cell to make a certain protein.
Allele Is any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus.
Homozygous Describes two of the same alleles at a specific locus.
Heterozygous Describes two different alleles at a specific locus.
Genome All of an organism's genetic material.
Genotype The genetic makeup of a specific set of genes.
Phenotype The physical characteristics of an organism.
Dominant allele The allele that is expressed when two different alleles or two dominant alleles are present.
Recessive allele The allele that is only expressed when two copies are present.
Punnett square A grid system for predicting all possible genotypes resulting in a cross.
Monohybrid crosses Crosses that examine the inheritance of only one specific trait.
Testcross A cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with the recessive phenotype.
Dihybrid crosses Crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits.
Law of independent assortment States that allele pairs separate independently of each other during gamete formation, or meiosis.
Probability The likelihood that a particular event will happen.
Crossing over The exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis 1.
Genetic linkage Genes located close together tend to be inherited together.
Created by: rickebry8209