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Chapter 6 Vocab

TermDefinition
somatic cell cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes
gamete sex cell; an egg or a sperm cell
homologous chromosome chromosome that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ
autosome chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
sex chromosome chromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics
sexual reproduction process by which two gametes fuse and offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produced
fertilization fusion of an egg and sperm cell
diploid cell that has two copies of each chromosome, one from an egg and one from a sperm
haploid cell that has only one copy of each chromosome
meiosis form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells; important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction
gametogenesis process by which gametes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes
sperm male gamete
egg female gamete
polar body haploid cell produced during meiosis in the female of many species; these cells have little more than DNA and eventually disintegrate
trait characteristic that is inherited
genetics study of the heredity patterns and variation of organisms
purebred type of organism whose ancestors are genetically uniform
cross mating of two organisms
law of segregation Mendel's first law, stating the (1) organisms inherit two copies of genes, one from each parents, and (2) organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate during gamete formation
gene specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein
allele any of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on a chromosome
homozygous characteristic of having two of the same alleles at the same locus of sister chromatids
heterozygous characteristic of having two different alleles that appear at the same locus of sister chromatids
genome all of an organism's genetic material
genotype collection of all of an organism's genetic information that codes for traits
phenotype collection of all of an organism's physical characteristics
dominant allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in an organism's genotype
recessive allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organism's genotype
Created by: grupeabi2506