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chapter 6 vocab

TermDefinition
somatic cells any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells
gametes a mature haploid male or female germ cell which is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote
homologous chromosomes Homologous chromosomes are made up of chromosome pairs of approximately the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern, for genes with the same corresponding loci
autosomes any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
sex chromosomes control the development of sexual characteristics
sexual reproduction the fusion of two gametes that result in offspring
fertilization the fusion of haploid gametes, egg and sperm, to form the diploid zygote
diploid containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
haploid having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
gametogenesis the process in which cells undergo meiosis to form gametes.
sperm Sperm is the male reproductive cell
egg the female gamete
polar body each of the small cells which bud off from an oocyte at the two meiotic divisions and do not develop into ova.
trait a genetically determined characteristic.
genetics the genetic properties or features of an organism, characteristic, etc.
purebred an animal bred from parents of the same breed or variety.
cross The deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent
law of segregation states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation and randomly unite at fertilization
gene a unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
homozygous a particular gene that has identical alleles on both homologous chromosomes
heterozygous having two different alleles of a particular gene or genes.
genome the haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism, or in each cell of a multicellular organism.
genotype the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
dominant a dominant trait or gene.
recessive a gene that can be masked by a dominant gene
Created by: hamilkod8482