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bio 6.1-6.4

TermDefinition
Somatic cells body cells/make up most of your tissues and organs
Gametes sex cells/ eggs and sperm
homologous chromosomes two chromosomes-one from mom and one from dad- that are the same size and general appearance
autosomes 1-22/ contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism
sex chromosomes control the sexual characteristics
fertilization the fusing of the egg and sperm producing a zygote
diploid two copies of each chromosome
haploid one copy of each chromosome
meiosis creates haploid sex cells from diploid germ cells
gametogenesis the production of gametes
sperm cell the male gamete
egg the female gamete
polar bodies cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down
traits distinguishing characteristics that are inherited
genetics the study of biological inheritance
purebred genetically pure from one line of organisms
cross the mating of two different species of organisms
law of segregation organisms inherit two copies of genes, one from each parent, and they give only one copy in their gametes
gene piece of DNA that provides a set of instruction to a cell to make a certain protein
allele any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus
homozygous two of the same alleles
heterozygous two different alleles
genome all of an organism's genetic material
genotype the genetic makeup of a specific set of genes
phenotype the physical characteristics, or traits, of an individual organism
dominant allele that is expressed when two alleles are present
recessive only expressed when two copies are present
sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two gametes that results in offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents
Created by: swearzac4021