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FA Review

Relevant treatments

QuestionAnswer
Ethylene glycol/methanol intoxication Fomepizole
Fomepizole is an: Alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor
Clostridium botulinum Antitoxin
Clostridium tetani Antitoxin
MS Staphylococcus aureus Nafcillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin
What are the most common anti-staphylococcal penicillins? Nafcillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin
MRSA: Vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and ceftaroline
Neisseria meningitidis Penicillin/ceftriaxone, rifampin (prophylaxis)
What is used for prophylaxis of N. meningitidis infection? Rifampin
Streptococcus pyogenes Penicillin prophylaxis
Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia Penicillin/cephalosporin
Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis? Vancomycin
Streptococcus bovis Penicillin prophylaxis
Enterococci Vancomycin, aminopenicillins/cephalosporins
Haemophilus influenzae (B) mucosal infection Amoxicillin +/- clavulanate
Haemophilus influenzae (B) meningitis Ceftriaxone
What is used for prophylaxis in H. influenzae (B)? Rifampin
Legionella pneumophila Macrolides
What is the MC macrolide used in Legionella pneumophila ? Azithromycin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Piperacillin/tazobactam, aminoglycosides, carbapenems
Treponema pallidum Penicillin G
Chlamydia trachomatis and gonorrhea infection Doxycycline + ceftriaxone
Chlamydia trachomatis to treat conjunctivitis in infants Oral erythromycin
Rickettsia rickettsii Doxycycline, chloramphenicol
Candida albicans vaginitis: Topical azoles
Candida albicans oral/esophageal infection: Nystatin, fluconazole, caspofungin
Systemic Candida albicans inspection: Fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B
Cryptococcus neoformans Induction with amphotericin B and flucytosine
What medication is used in maintenance treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in an AIDS patient? Fluconazole
Sporothrix schenckii Itraconazole, oral potassium iodide
Pneumocystis jiroveci TMP-SMX
Toxoplasma gondii Sulfadiazine + Pyrimethamine
Malaria (for blood schizont) Chloroquine, mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil
What is the malarial treatment ofr liver hypnozoite? Primaquine
Trichomonas vaginalis Metronidazole
Influenza Oseltamivir, zanamivir
CMV Ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Ceftriaxone
Clostridium difficile Oral metronidazole
Refractory C. difficile Oral vancomycin
Mycobacterium tuberculosis RIPE (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol)
UTI prophylaxis TMP-SMX
Chronic hepatitis B or C INF-alpha(HBV and HBC); ribavirin, simeprevir, sofosbuvir (HCV)
Patent ductus arteriosus closure Indomethacin
PDA keep open with: PGE analogues
Stable angina Sublingual nitroglycerin
Hypercholesterolemia Statin (first-line)
Buerger disease Smoking cessation
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener) Cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids
Kawasaki disease IVIG, high-dose aspirin
Temporal arteritis High-dose steroids
Arrhythmia in damaged cardiac tissue Class IB antiarrhythmic
What are two common Class IB antiarrhythmics? Lidocaine and Mexiletine
Pheochromocytoma Alpha-antagonists
What common a-antagonist is used to treat Pheochromocytoma? Phenoxybenzamine
Prolactinoma Cabergoline/bromocriptine
What are two dopamine agonists? Cabergoline and bromocriptine
Central Diabetes insipidus Desmopressin
Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus Hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin, amiloride
SIADH Fluid restriction, IV hypertonic saline, conivaptan/tolvaptan, demeclocycline
Diabetes mellitus type 1 Dietary intervention (low carbohydrate) + insulin replacement
Diabetes mellitus type 2 Dietary intervention, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin
Diabetic ketoacidosis Fluids, insulin, K+
Carcinoid syndrome Octreotide
Crohn's disease Corticosteroids, infliximab, azathioprine
Ulcerative colitis 5-ASA preparations (mesalamine), 6-MP, infliximab, colectomy
Hypertriglyceridemia Fibrate
Sickle cell disease Hydroxyurea
How does the Hydroxyurea work in the treatment of Sickle cell disease? Increases fetal hemoglobin
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Imatinib
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3) All-trans retinoic acid
Drug of choice for anticoagulation during pregnancy Heparin
Heparin reversal Protamine sulfate
Immediate anticoagulation Heparin
Long-term anticoagulation Warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban
Warfarin reversal acute Fresh frozen plasma
Non-acute warfarin reversal Vitamin K
Cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis Mesna
HER2/neu (+) breast cancer Trastuzumab
Osteoporosis Bisphosphonates, PTH analogs, SERMs, calcitonin, denosumab
Prophylaxis for Osteoporosis Calcium/ Vitamin D supplementation
Osteomalacia/rickets Vitamin D supplementation
Chronic gout Xanthine oxidase inhibitors, pegloticase; probenecid
What are common Xanthine oxidase inhibitors? Allopurinol and Febuxostat
Acute gout attack NSAIDs, colchicine, glucocorticoids
Neural tube defect prevention Prenatal folic acid
What are the abortive therapies for migraines? Sumatriptan and NSAIDs
What are common medications used in prophylaxis of migraines? Propranolol, topiramate, CCBs, and amitriptyline
Trigeminal neuralgia Carbamazepine
Multiple Sclerosis Disease-modifying therapies (B-interferon, natalizumab)
What are some common Disease-modifying therapies? B-interferon, natalizumab
What is the best treatment for acute flare of Multiple Sclerosis? IV steroids
Which two conditions affect the dorsal comum fibers? Tabes dorsalis and Subacute Combined degeneration
What 3 tracts are affected in Subacute Combined Degeneration? Dorsal columns, lateral corticospinal, and spinocerebellar tracts
Tonic-clonic seizures Levetiracetam, phenytoin, valproate, and carbamazepine
Absence seizures Ethosuximide
Malignant Hyperthermia Dantrolene
Anorexia Nutrition, psychotherapy, mirtazapine
Bulimia nervosa SSRIs
Alcoholism Disulfiram, acamprosate, naltrexone, supportive care
ADHD Methylphenidate, amphetamines, CBT, atomoxetine, guanfacine, clonidine
Alcohol withdrawal Long-acting benzodiazepines
Bipolar disorder Mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics
What are some common mood stabilizers? Lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine
Depression SSRIs
Generalized anxiety disorder SSRIs, SNRIs; buspirone
What is the second line of treatment for GAD? Buspirone
Schizophrenia positive symptoms Typical and atypical antipsychotics
Schizophrenia negative symptoms Atypical antipsychotics
Hyperaldosteronism Spironolactone
Benign prostatic hyperplasia alpha-1- antagonists, 5a-reductase inhibitors, and PDE-5 inhibitors
Infertility Leuprolide, GnRH (pulsatile), clomiphene
How is the form in which GnRH given to treat infertility? Pulsatile
Breast cancer in postmenopausal women Aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole)
Common Aromatase inhibitor Anastrozole
ER (+) breast cancer Tamoxifen
Prostate adenocarcinoma/ uterine fibroids Leuprolide, GnRH (continuous)
Form of GnRH administration in treatment of prostate cancer/ uterine fibroids? Continuous
Medical abortion Mifepristone
Prostate adenocarcinoma Flutamide
Erectile dysfunction Sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (idiopathic) Sildenafil, bosentan, epoprostenol
Other then erectile dysfunction, what is another use for Sildenafil? Pulmonary arterial hypertension
Created by: rakomi