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SA 107 PD & PK

intro to pharm, PD and PK

Pharmacodynamics- What drugs do to the body.
Pharmacokinetics- What the body does to drugs.
Ligand- Molecule that binds to a receptor.
The 4 major types of receptors- ion channel, G-protein coupled, enzyme linked, and intracellular.
Ions- Charged molecules
Cations- Positively charged.
Anions- negatively charged.
Ion Channels are what type of receptors? Transmembrane
Examples of ion channels- neurotransmission, cardiac conduction, muscle contraction.
Types of ion channels- voltage gated, ligand-gated, second messenger.
Voltage gated channels- Activated by rapid change in membrane potential.
Membrane potential- Difference in ion concentration across a cell membrane.
Ligand gated channels- Ligand binds to open channels
Resting potential- The inside of the cell has an overall negative charge compared to the outside of the cell.
Excitatory- Positive ions flow into the cell.
Inhibitory- Negative ions flow into the cell.
Receptor desensitization- G-Protein channel receptors that are exposed to prolonged exposure to a agonist which results in decreased number of functional receptor sites.
Receptor downregulation- Definitive end product of receptor desensitization.
Kinase- Enzyme that adds a large, negatively charged phosphate group to protein. Used in enzyme-linked receptors.
Phosphorylation- The integration of kinase to attach a phosphate group to a protein.
Examples of Enzyme-linked receptors- Insulin, Growth Hormone, Cytokine. chemotherapeutics.
Examples of G-protein receptors- G(s) coupled- epi and norepinephrine. Heart, lungs, other organs. G(1) coupled- endorphins and narcartics. CNS, Heart and GI tract.
Intracellular Receptors- cytpoplasmic or nuclear receptors. Ligands must pass through the cell membrane to reach receptors.
Examples of intracellular receptors- Steroids, estrogen.
Non-receptor drugs diuretics, antacids, adsorbants (charcoal).
What type of receptor is also known as a 7 transmembrane domain receptor? G-protein a receptor.
What type of receptor is also known as a catalytic receptor, where binding an extracellular ligand causes specific activity on the intracellular side? Enzyme linked receptor.
What type of receptor is located inside the cell rather than on it's membrane? intracellular receptor.
What type of receptor is essential in neuronal activities, and can also be called a ligand gated receptor channel? Ion channel receptor.
What type of receptor is the most abundant receptor within the body? G protein coupled receptor.
What term refers to a molecule that relays signals from a receptor on the surface of a cell that triggers a series of events within the cell? Second messenger.
What type of channel passes positive ions into the cell? Excitatory channels.
What type of channels passes negative ions into the cell? inhibitory channels.
Adverse reaction- Any dangerous reaction to a drug.
Untoward reaction- Causes harm.
Ampule- A sealed sterile container that holds a single dose of liquid or powdered medication.
Antagonist- Something opposing or resisting the action of another.
Antidote- An agent that neutralizes a poison or counteracts it's clinical or physiologic effects.
Contraindication- Something that makes an indicated treatment or procedure inadvisable. Has to be indicated.
Cross-tolerance- Tolerance or resistance to a drug that develops through continued use of another drug with similar pharmacological action.
Cumulative effect- Condition in which repeated administration of a drug may produce effects that are more pronounced than those produced by the first dose.
Idiosyncrasy- Type of reaction that is totally unpredictable, and unique to an individual.
Indication- Something that points to, or suggests the proper treatment of a disease.
Physical Dependence- A physiological state of adaptation to a substance, in which the absence produces symptoms and signs of withdrawal.
Potentiation- Interaction between two or more drugs, resulting in a pharmacologic response greater than the sum of individual responses to each drug. Chemotherapy drugs.
Psychological dependence- An emotional desire for a drug or substance that has no underlying physical need.
Summation- Two drugs that have the same effect are given together. Also known as additive effect. Advil and aspirin to relieve pain.
Tachyphylaxis- Rapid appearance of progressive decrease in response to a given dose after repetitive administration of a pharmacologically active substance.
Side effect- A secondary, typically undesirable effect of a drug. Is expected.
Synergism- Interaction of two or more drugs to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate effects. Drugs and alcohol together.
Tolerance- Diminished response to a drug, which occurs when the drug is used repeatedly and the body adapts to the continued presence of the drug.
Vial- A small container, typically cylindrical and made of glass, used especially for holding liquid medications. Holds more than a single dose or used for more than one patient.
The purpose of medications: Curative, Prophylactic, Diagnostic, Palliative, Replacement, destructive
Curative- Medications that cure diseases (antibiotics)`
Prophylactic- Medications that prevent diseases. (vaccines)
Diagnostic- Medications that help diagnose diseases. (Barium)
Palliative- Medications that make patients more comfortable. (morphine)
Replacement- Medications that replaces substances within the body. (insulin)
Destructive- Medications that destroy tumors or microbes. (chemo)
Rank the controlled substance schedules from most abused to lowest risk I-Highest, no medical purpose. heroin, marijuana LSD II-high, medical purpose. fentanyl, methylphenidate, cocaine III- moderate. hydrocodone, Tylenol w/codeine, ketamine IV- lower. diazepam, larazepam V- lowest. narcotic cough medicines
Biologic- Produced naturally in animals, microorganisms or by the human body.
Complementary- Therapies that involve plant extracts, herbs, vitamins, minerals, and dietary supplements.
What kind of bond are ligands using to bind? Covalent
K (on)receptors- The amount of time a ligand takes to bind to a receptor.
K (off) receptors- The amount of time a ligand takes to disassociate from the receptor.
Drug-receptor binding curve- How binding between a ligand and a receptor influences the body. Examines the safety of the drug.
Quantal dose-response curves- Plots the fraction of a population that responds to a given dose of medication.



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