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FA Review

Classic Lab findings and corresponding Disease

Decreased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormality
Large granules in phagocytes, immunodeficiency Chediak-Higashi disease
Congenital failure of phagolysosome formation is causative of? Chediak-Higashi disease
Recurrent infections, eczema, thrombocytopenia Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
Branching gram positive rods with sulfur granules Actinomyces israelii
Optochin sensitive: S. pneumoniae
Optochin resistant: viridans streptococci (s. mutans, S. ganguis)
Bacitracin sensitive: S. pyogenes (groups A)
Bacitracin resistant: S. agalactiae (group B)
Novobiocin sensitive: S. epidermidis
Novobiocin resistant: S. saprophyticus
Streptococcus bovis bacteremia Colon cancer
Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify) Ghon complex
Primary TB: Mycobacterium bacilli is seen with formation of? Ghon complex
Bacteria-covered vaginal epithelial cells "Clue cells"
What is the MC organism involved in the formation of "Clue cells"? Gardnerella vaginallis
Ring-enhancing brain lesion on CT/MRI in AIDS Toxoplasma gondii, CNS lymphoma
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy Chagas disease
What organism causes Chagas disease? Trypanosoma cruzi
Heterophile antibodies Infectious mononucleosis?
What is the MCC viral organism that causes Infectious mononucleosis? EBV
Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies Cowdry type A bodies
What organisms produces Cowdry type A bodies? HSV and VZV
Eosinophilic globule in liver Councilman body
What is represented with Councilman bodies? Hepatocyte undergoing apoptosis
Which conditions or disease are see with Councilman bodies? Viral hepatitis and Yellow fever
"Steeple" sign on frontal CXR Croup
What virus causes Croup? Parainfluenza
Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal and cerebellar neurons Negri bodies of rabies
Atypical lymphocytes EBV
Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies "Owl eye" appearance of CMB
"Thumb sign" on lateral neck x-ray Epiglottis
What is the most common cause of Epiglottis in adults? Haemophilus influenzae infection
"Delta wave" on ECG, short PR interval, SVT Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
What is bypassed in the heart histology in a WPW patient? Bundle of Kent bypasses AV node
"Boot-shaped" heart on x-ray Tetralogy of Fallot
What is them most common cause of ToF's heart shape? RVH
Rib notching in the inferior surface, seen on X-ray Coarctation of the aorta
Heart nodules (granulomatous) Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)
Electrical alternans (alternating amplitude on ECG) Pericardial tamponade
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis Primary hyperaldosetonises
What is another term used for Primary Hyperaldosteronism? Conn syndrome
Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei with central clearing "Orphan Annie" eyes nucle
Papillary carcinoma of the Thyroid is seen with? "Orphan Annie" eyes nuclei
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) Microscopic polyangiitis and Eosinophilic with polyangiitis (MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA); Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA); Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA)
Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus "Signet ring"
What classical histological finding in Gastric carcinoma? "Signet ring"
Anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies Celiac disease
Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium x-ray Ulcerative colitis
Loss of haustra Ulcerative colitis
Thousands of polyps on colonoscopy Familial adenomatous polyposis
Autosomal dominant; mutation of APC gene Familial adenomatous polyposis
"Apple core" lesion on barium enema x-ray Colorectal cancer
What side is most common to develop colorectal cancer? Left side
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell Mallory body
What kind of cytoplasmic inclusions are seen in alcoholic liver disease? Mallory body
Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles Fatty liver disease
Which two syndromes are characterized by developing Fatty liver disease? Alcoholic and Metabolic syndrome
"Nutmeg" appearance of liver Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure or Budd-Chiari syndrome
Patient with normal right heart physiology and with a "nutmeg liver" is often due to: Budd-Chiari syndrome
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) Primary Biliary cirrhosis
Female, cholestasis, portal hypertension, and positive AMA Primary Biliary cirrhosis
Low serum ceruloplasmin Wilson disease
Migratory thrombophlebitis Trousseau syndrome
What are complications of migratory thrombophlebitis? DVTs and Vasculitis
Positive Trousseau syndrome is indicative of which two adenocarcinomas? Pancreas or Lung adenocarcinoma
Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs Howell-Jolly bodies
What causes the appearance of Howell-Jolly bodies? Splenectomy or non-functional spleen
Hypochromic, microcytic anemia Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia
Basophilic stippling of RBCs Lead poisoning or Sideroblastic anemia
"Hair on end" ("Crew-cut") appearance on x-ray B-thalassemia, sickle cell disease
Marrow expansion causes what type of description on X-ray? Crew-cut or Hair on end appearance
Hypersegmented neutrophils Megaloblastic anemia
Antiplatelet antibodies DVT, PE, DIC
Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye") Reed-Sternberg cells
Positive for Reed-Sternberg cells Hodgkin lymphoma
Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body-laden macrophages ("starry sky") histology Burkitt lymphoma
t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV Burkitt lymphoma
"Starry sky" made up of malignant cells Burkitt lymphoma
Lytic ("punched-out") bone lesions on x -ray Multiple myeloma
Monoclonal antibody spike: 1. Multiple Myeloma (usually IgG or IgA) 2. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) 3. Waldenstrom (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia 4. Primary amyloidosis
Monoclonal IgG spike Multiple Myeloma
Single IgM antibody spike Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia
What is a the most common consequence of MGUS development? Aging
Stacks of RBCs Rouleaux formation
Which conditions are characterized with rouleaux formation of RBCs? High ESR and Multiple myeoloma
Azurophilic peroxidase positive granular inclusions in granulocytes and myeloblasts Auer rods
What condition is seen with Auer rods? AML, especially the promyelocytic [M3] type
WBCs that look "smudged" CLL
What cells is almost always affected in CLL B cell
"Tennis-racquet"- shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells Birbeck granules
What is the name given to the granules in Langerhans cell histiocytosis? Birbeck granules
"Brown" tumor of bone Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica
Deposited hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives brown color Osteitis fibrosa cystica
Raised periosteum is seen _________________ bone lesions. Aggressive
What are some examples of AGGRESSIVE bone lesion? Osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, osteomyelitis
A raised periosteum is also known as: "Codman triangle"
"Soap bubble" in femur or tibia on x-ray Giant cell tumor of bone
Giant cell tumor of the bone is generally is __________________. Benign
"Onion skin" periosteal reaction Ewing sarcoma
Malignant small blue cell tumor Ewing sarcoma
Anti-IgG antibodies Rheumatoid arthritis
Systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere and swan neck deformities Rheumatoid arthritis
Rhomboid crystals, + birefringent Pseudogout
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals Pseudogout
Needle-shaped, negative birefringent crystals Gout
Monosodium urate crystals Gout
Increased uric acid levels Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics
"Bamboo spine" on x-ray Ankylosing spondylitis
Chronic inflammatory arthritis, HLA-B27 Seronegative spondylitis
Antinuclear antibodies SLE
ANAs are: 1. anti-Smith 2. anti-dsDNA
What type of hypersensitivity is SLE? Type III
Anti-topoisomerase antibodies Diffuse systemic scleroderma
Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy Squamous cell carcinoma
Antihistone antibodies Drug-induced SLE
What drugs are associated in development of Drug-induced SLE? Hydralazine, isoniazid, phenytoin, and procainamide
Bloody or yellow tap on lumbar puncture Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Yellowish CSF Xanthochromia
What is a common cause of Xanthochromia? Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in neuron Lewy body
What conditions are seen with Lewy bodies? Parkinson disease and Lewy body dementia
Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain Senile plaques
Senile plaques are associated with which degenerative condition? Alzheimer disease
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra Parkinson disease
Basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia Parkinson disease
Parkinson disease is associated with which kind of tremor? Resting tremor
Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of tau protein Neurofibrillary tangles and Pick bodies
Neurofibrillary tangles made of Tau protein are seen in: Alzheimer disease
Pick bodies made of ____________protein, are seen in Pick disease. Tau
SIlver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons Pick bodies
Progressive dementia, changes in personality, and Positive Pick bodies Pick disease
Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy Glioblastoma multiforme
Circular groping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils Homer-Wright rosettes
Positive Homer-Wright rosettes are seen in which brain tumors? 1. Neuroblastoma 2. Medulloblastoma
"Waxy" casts with very low urine flow Chronic end-stage renal disease
RBC casts in urine Glomerulonephritis
"Tram-track" appearance of capillary loops of glomerular basement membranes on light microscopy Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules
Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules are seen in: Diabetic nephropathy
Podocyte fusion or "effacement" on electron microscopy Minimal change disease
Child with nephrotic syndrome (MCC) Minimal change disease
"Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like" subepithelial deposits Membranous nephropathy
Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies Goodpasture syndrome
Glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis Goodpasture syndrome
Cellular crescents in Bowman's capsule Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
"Wire loop" glomerular capillary appearance on light microscopy Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis
Which kinds of Glomerulonephritis is often seen with Lupus? Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis
Linear appearance of IgG deposition on glomerular and alveolar basement membranes Goodpasture syndrome
"Lumpy bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Due to deposition of IgG, IgM, and C3 in glomerular basement membrane Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener) and Goodpasture syndrome
Thyroid-like appearance of kidney Chronic pyelonephritis
WBC casts in urine Acute pyelonephritis
Renal epithelial casts in urine Intrinsic renal failure
What are the most common causes of intrinsic renal failure? Ischemia and toxic injury
hCG elevated Choriocarcinoma and hydatidiform mole
Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with "raisinoid" nuclei and hyperchromasia Koilocytes
Which characteristic cells are seen in HPV infection? Koilocytes
HPV infection predisposes to: Cervical cancer
+ Psammoma bodies: Meningiomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma, mesothelioma, papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium and ovary
Diassrayed granulosa cells arranged around collection of eosinophilic fluid Call-Exner bodies
What kind of inclusion bodies are seen in Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary? Call-Exner bodies
"Chocolate cyst" of ovary Endometriosis
Mammary gland cyst Fibrocystic change of the breast
"Blue domed" cyst of the breast Fibrocystic change of the breast
Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells Schiller-Duval bodies
Yolk sac tumor is seen with: Schiller-Duval bodies
Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells Reinke crystals
Reinke crystals are seen in which type of tumor? Leydig cell tumor
Thrombi made of white/red layers Lines of Zahn
Arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs Lines of Zahn
Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions Bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma is seen with? Charcot-Leyden crystals
What are the Charcot-Leyden crystals? Eosinophilic granules seen in bronchial asthma secretions
Desquamated epithelial casts in sputum Curschmann spirals
What is the name of the whorled mucous plugs seen in Bronchial asthma? Curschmann spirals
"Honeycomb lung" on x-ray or CT Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis
Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs Cystic fibrosis
Autosomal recessive mutation in CFTR gene --> fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs Cystic fibrosis
Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum Ferruginous bodies
Bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging Pancoast tumor
What condition may compress the cervical sympathetic chain and cause Horner's syndrome? Pancoast tumor
Created by: rakomi



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