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105 Chapter 6

Anatomy and Physiology

thyroid cartilage adams apple
musculoskeletal system system of bones and skeletal muscles that support + protect the body and permit movement
ligament bone to bone
tendon muscle to bone
cranium top back and sides of skull (the face is the front)
mandible lower jaw
maxille two fused bones of upper jaw
nasal bones some of the structure of the nose
orbits surround the eyes (multiple bones)
zygomatic arches structures of the cheeks
spinal column protects the spinal cord and provides support and structure for the body. Consists of 33 vertebrae
vertabrae the separate bones of the spine (33)
5 Spinal Divisions cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx
cervical the 7 vertebrae of the neck (c1-c7)...atlas, axis...etc.
thoracic 12 vertebrae of the chest (thorax, ribs, upper back
lumbar 5 vertebrae of the lower back
sacral 5 vertebrae of the back wall of the pelvis
coccyx 4 vertebrae of the tail bone
sternum breast bone
manubrium the superior portion of the sternum
xiphoid process the inferior portion of the sternum
pelvis the basin shaped bony structure that supports the spine (sacral and coccyx) and is the promixal attachment point for the lower extremities
ilium the superior and widest portion of the pelvis
pubis the medial anterior portion of the pelvis
acetabulum the pelvic socket that fits the ball of the proximal end of the femur
femur large thigh bone
patella knee
tibia medial larger bone of lower leg (shin bone)
fibula lateral small bone of lower leg
malleolus each side of the ankle, lateral at inferior end of fibula, and medial is at inferior end of tibia
tarsals bones making up the ankle
metatarsals bones making up the foot
calcaneus heel bone
phalanges toe bones
clavicle located anteriorly, collerbone
scapula located posteriorly, shoulderblade
acromion process the highest portion of the scapula
acromioclavicle joint where the top of the scapula and the clavicle meet
humerus bone between shoulder and elbow
radius the lateral bone of the forearm, always aligned with thumb
ulna medial bone of forearm
carpals the several bones of the wrist
metacarpals bones of the hand
phalanges finger and toes
ball and socket joints ie. hip, ball of femur rotates in a round socket of the pelvis
hinge joints ie. elbow, angle between humerus and ulna bends and straightens
types of muscles voluntary, involuntary, and cardiac A>K>A skeletal, smooth, cardiac
voluntary muscle skeletal, under direct control of the brain, attached to bone and contracts
involuntary muscle smooth, controls materials through organs by responding automatically from the brain
cardiac muscle a specialized form of involuntary muscle found in the heart
automaticity the property of the heart that allows it to generate and conduct electric impulses on its own, heartbeat
respiratory/pulmonary system ventilation and oxygenation. O2 moved into bloodstream through inhalation, CO2 picked up by blood and excreted through exhalation
oropharynx area directly posterior to the mouth
nasopharnx area directly posterior to the nose
pharnx area that includes both the oropharynx and the nasopharynx
epiglottis a leaf shaped structure that closes over the glottis
glottis the opening to the trachea
larynx voice box, contains the vocal cords
cricoid cartilage a ring shaped structure that forms the lower portion of the larynx
trachea windpipe, tube that carries air from larynx down towards the lungs, made of 16 C-shaped rings of cartilage
bronchi the bifurcated parts of the trachea, singular = mainstem bronchus that leads to lung
bronchioles the many branches of the bronchus inside the lung that end at alveoli
diaphragm it is the large muscle that is controlled by the phrenic nerve and divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity, helps inhale and exhale
intercostal muscles muscles of the rib cage
inhalation the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm contract, pulling the ribs upward and outward and the diaphragm lower created negative pressure (vacuum) in the chest, which pulls air into lungs
exhalation intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax, ribs go downward and inward and the Diaphragm rises, chest size decreases and positive pressure builds which pushes air out of lungs
alveoli tiny sacs at the end of bronchioles, that are surrounded by pulmonary capillaries
pulmonary capillaries brings blood to outside walls of alveoli
ventilation the movement of gases to and from the alveoli, O2 and C02 transfers to and excretes from the pulmonary capillaries
arteries carry blood away from heart to bring oxygen to cells
veins carry blood towards heart with excreted CO2 from cells
respiration the process of moving cells between the cells and blood
Created by: jon.kowalski



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