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PSYCHOBIOLOGY

PATHO PSYCHOBIOLOGY

QuestionAnswer
Describe the Diathesis-Stress Paradigm. Focus on interaction btwn predisposition of disease (diathesis) and environment/life disturbances (stress).
Is Diathesis biological or psychological (experiences)? It can be both.
What is Neural Plasticity? The ability of the brain to structurally & functionally reorganize itself.
What is Kindling Sensisitization? When the limbic structures of the brain become more sensitive to stimuli.
Give examples of when can Kindling occur? PTSD and BiPolar Disorder
What type of fxns does the limbic system support? Emotion, long term memory, behavior
What is Synaptic Pruning? A Neurological regulatory process by which neural structures "PRUNE" weak or overproduced neurons into more efficient synaptic configurations.
In terms of circuit fxns, what is the difference btwn Pre-Adolescence and Post-Adolescence/Adolescent in Synaptic Pruning? In Pre-Adolescence, circuits remain above threshold and compensate self despite impairments. Post Adolescence the circuits will be BELOW the threshold = disease onset.
Name the two structures that comprise the Limbic System. Hippocampus and Amygdala
What is the role of the Hippocampus? Information storage, info to LNG TRM MEM, Visual/Auditory memory patterns, Emotional response to memory.
What is the role of the Amygdala? Aggression, Sexuality, Social Behavior, Fear/Stress Response
What two parts of the brain are involved in PTSD? Amygdala and Hippocampus
What is the fxn of the Frontal Cortex? Rcvs info from othr prts of brain, provides context, merges info, allows individual to plan in response to stimuli. HIGHER LVL THINKING
What is the fxn of the Hypothalamus? TEMP, Feeding, Drinking, Sleep/Wake cycle, Survival
What is the fxn of the Parietal Lobe? Evaluates Sensory Info, Gustatory Hallucinations, Tactile Sensation, INPUT COMES FROM THALAMUS,
What causes Kindling? Repeated electrical stimuli in the brain.
What is the fxn of the Temporal Lobe? Interpretation of Smell, Wernicke's Area (speech),
What is the first sign of Temporal Lobe disease? Not being able to interpret smell.
Learning, memory, sexual behavior, aggression/submission behavior relates to what part of the brain? Limbic System
What is the fxn of the Occipital Lobe? Visual fxn/discrimination, Some Visual Memory
What part of the brain is associated with Reward Motivation & Addiction? Nucleus Accumbens
What type of receptors are found in abundance in the Nucleus Accumbens? Dopamine Receptors
What is the fxn of the Frontal Cortex? Rcvs info from othr prts of brain, provides context, merges info, allows individual to plan in response to stimuli. HIGHER LVL THINKING
What is the fxn of the Hypothalamus? TEMP, Feeding, Drinking, Sleep/Wake cycle, Survival
What is the fxn of the Parietal Lobe? Evaluates Sensory Info, Gustatory Hallucinations, Tactile Sensation, INPUT COMES FROM THALAMUS,
What causes Kindling? Repeated electrical stimuli in the brain.
What is the fxn of the Temporal Lobe? Interpretation of Smell, Wernicke's Area (speech),
What is the first sign of Temporal Lobe disease? Not being able to interpret smell.
Learning, memory, sexual behavior, aggression/submission behavior relates to what part of the brain? Limbic System
What is the fxn of the Occipital Lobe? Visual fxn/discrimination, Some Visual Memory
What part of the brain is associated with Reward Motivation & Addiction? Nucleus Accumbens
What type of receptors are found in abundance in the Nucleus Accumbens? Dopamine Receptors
What is the role of the neurotransmitter Glutamate? Excitatory Neuron, Mediates Plasticity, Involved in Excitotoxic Disorders
What can occur when the neurotransmitter Glutamate (NMDA) affects INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM? Cell Death
What is the role of the neurotransmitter GABA? Prominent in Arousal, Post-Synaptic Inhibition of CNS
What neural transmitter is involved to decrease neuron excitability? GABA
What part of a car can GABA be compared to? The car's brake.
What is the role of Dopamine? Enhanced cognitive activity, pleasure seeking, Purposeful Movement, Motivation, Thinking
What are the effects of MILD dopamine deficits? Poor impulse cntrl, spatial ability
What are the effects of SEVERE dopamine deficits? Avolition, problems w/ balance, movement disorders.
What are psychiatric disorders related to DOPAMINE? Schizophrenia, Substance Abuse, Parkinson's
What two Dopamine pathways are affected when a pt has schizophrenia? Mesolimbic and Mesocortical
Which dopamine brain pathway affects Postive Symptoms, Memory, and Emotion in Schizophrenia? Mesolimbic (Hyperdopaminergic)
Which dopamine brain pathway affects Motivation Social Behaviors, Attention Planning, Negative Symptoms in pts w/ schizophrenia? Mesocortical (Hypodopaminergic)
Most antipsychotic drugs affect which Dopamine pathway? Mesolimbic (Hyperdopaminergic)
Where is NE synthesized? Pons (Locus Coeruleus)
What is the role of NE? Fight/Flight Response
What psychiatric disorder is related to NE? Depression/Mania (BIPOLAR)
What occurs if a pt has too much NE? Mania/Panic Disorder/Anxiety
What occurs if a pt has too little NE? Depression
What may serve as triggers to Panic Disorder? Caffeine, nicotine, lactic acid
What part of the brain has the highest level of Serotonin? Pineal Body
What is the fxn of Serotonin? Normal aggression, appetite, temperature, pain perceptions, MOOD STATE, Sexual interest
Where is Serotonin synthesized? Raphe nuclei (BRAINSTEM)
If a pt has a deficit of Serotonin what is likely to occur? Depression
What will an abnormal regulation of Serotonin lead to? OCD/PTSD
Hallucinations, Illusions, and Delusions are what type of symptoms, NEGATIVE or POSITIVE? POSITIVE
What causes POSITIVE SYMPTOMS? Excess Dopamine
What type of symptoms are associated with language and cognition? Positive Symptoms
What parts of the brain are involved in PTSD? Limbic System, Hypothalamus, Locus Coerulus (Pons)
What neurotransmitters are involved in PTSD? NE, GABA, Glutamate, 5-HT, Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
What are the hormonal influences of Anorexia? Impaired somatostatin activity (inhibition of glucagon and GH)
What type of hormones do DEPRESSED pts synthesize? ↑ CRH (Hypothalamus), ↑ ACTH (Anterior Pituitary), ↑ Glucocorticoids (Adrenal Cortex). HPA Axis
What are the neurotransmitters involved in OCD? 5-HT
What parts of the brain are involved in OCD? ↑ Pre Frontal Cortex & Basal Ganglia activity
Created by: jesusrvillarreal