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APES Mid-Term 2020

QuestionAnswer
What's the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources? time it takes to replenish
What is an example of reuse? using plastic butter tubs to hold leftovers
What is one form of pollution prevention? tall smoke stacks
What is an example of natural capital degradation? aquifer depletion
How is the technology revolution characterized? development of technologies for gaining rapid access to information and resources on a global scale
What is a consequence of poverty? heart disease and diabetes from obesity
What is natural income? renewable resources provided by the earth's natural capital
What is a scientific theory? an overwhelming body of evidence supporting one hypothesis or a group of related hypotheses
What is contained within a chromosome? thousands of genes
How does electromagnetic energy travel? as waves
In a word, how can high-quality energy be characterized? concentrated
What is an example of potential energy? a car at the top of a hill
What is one end product of anaerobic respiration? acetic acid
What is the percentage of the earth's total potential NPP that is wasted by humans? 38%
What is the earth's main storage for sulfur? underground rocks and minerals
As an example of natural capital, pharmaceutical products have been made from what? amphibian skin secretions
What does genetic diversity enable life on earth to do? adapt and survive environmental changes
What is entomology? study of insects
What is one benefit to having a more diverse ecosystem? it will be more productive
With a population of between 1600 and 3000 individuals, what is one of the most endangered species in the world? Giant Panda
What is one generalization that can be made of parasites? they rarely kill their hosts
What is commensalism? a relationship when one species benefits and the other is unaffected
What benefit do kelp forests provide? they reduce shore erosion by reducing the force of incoming waves and trapping outgoing sand.
Because grasslands can easily catch fire they are said to have, what? low inertia
When one set of species makes an area suitable for species with different niche requirements and less suitable for itself is called what? facilitation
What is the current view among ecologists regarding late-succession ecosystems? They are in a state of continual disturbance and change
What is a population adapted to when it is said to have a range of tolerance? variations in physical and chemical factors within the ecosystem
How many people on earth are estimated to lack their basics needs? 1 in 5
What is the global human life expectancy? 70 years
What is behind the high infant mortality rate in the US? drug addiction among women
What is average number of children born to women in their reproductive years? total fertility rate
In what year did the US total fertility rate hit, and stay below, the replacement rate? 1972
What is one negative consequence of a rapid decline in population? less revenue for the government and fewer workers
True or False: China has very few critical resource and environmental problems. False
What is the greenhouse effect? the trapping of heat by the earth's atmosphere
What is the best example of a major human impact on a mountain ecosystem? timber and mineral extraction
What are the climate characteristics of a grassland forest? bitterly cold winters, hot dry summers, and sparse precipitation
What is the most important factor that determines a biome? climate
What factor does the alpine tundra receive more of than the Arctic tundra? sunlight
True or False: A tropical rain forest has a low net primary productivity false
Which biome has ample rainfall or moisture from fog and large conifer trees? temperate rain forest
What is one outcome not likely to happen as a result of human impacts on an ecosystem? increased biodiversity
What are two long-term threats to coral reefs? climate change and acidification
What percentage of shallow coral reefs have been destroyed in the last 70 years? 75%
Jellyfish in class Cnidaria are categorized in terms of marine life as what? zooplankton
In marine ecosystems what are examples of benthos organisms? oysters, sea stars and lobsters
True or false: Algal blooms are key factors that determine the types of and number of organisms in both marine and freshwater systems. false
Within a marine system where would the highest net primary productivity be found? shallow systems because nutrients are plentiful
What occurs in the euphotic zone of the open ocean? photosynthesis
What is a negative consequence of human construction of dams and levees? causing river deltas to sink
What characterizes a eutrohpic lake? well-supplied with nutrients for producers
Where are large numbers of decomposers found within a lake? benthic zone
What is a characteristics of eutrophic lakes? they are well supplied with nutrients for producers
In which zone of a lake ecosystem are most decomposers found?? benthic zone
Which zone of a slow moving river would contain much silt? floodplain zone
True or False: One ecological and economic service provided by wetlands is stopping the recharge of groundwater aquifers. False
What is it that bees are using to make their honey? nectar
What is a mass extinction? the extinction of many species in a relatively short time in the geologic record
An area with a variety of threatened or endangered species is known as, what? Biodiversity hotspot
The natural, low rate of species extinction is referred to as? background extinction rate
True or False: Kudzu, and introduced and invasive plant species, can be controlled by normal weed control measures. False
Identify a species that was intentionally introduced here in the US. Kudzu
What is defined as an "old growth forest?" any uncut or regenerated primary forest undisturbed for at least 200 years
What is defined as a "second growth forest?" a forest that results from secondary succession
True or False: A forest provides the ecological service of releasing atmospheric carbon. False
By one estimate what is the monetary worth of the earth's ecological services per year? $33.2 trillion
By one estimate what is the monetary worth of the world's forests ecological services per year? $4.7 trillion
A forest fire that only burns the undergrowth and leaf litter is called, what? a surface fire
How much of the island nation Haiti's forests remain? Only 2%
A deed restriction that would bar future land owners from developing, say grassland in the south western US, is called? conservation easement
Four principles of ecological restoration and rehabilitation. 1. Find the cause of the degradation. 2. Stop the abuse by eliminating the cause. 3. Reintroduce pioneer, foundation and keystone species. 4. Protect the area from further degradation.
How would eliminating local plants from your household garden rank for sustaining biodiversity? This would rank as one of the least effective methods.
In what way does the projected climate change threaten aquatic ecosystems? rising sea levels
What is CITIES? a treaty banning trade in endangered species
How would the introduction of commercially important nonnative species rank in sustainable management of aquatic ecosystems? It would rank as a least effective method.
What has continued the degradation of the Everglades National Park? massive water distribution and land development north of the Everglades
Restoring and protecting mangrove forests are important for what reason? reducing impacts of rising sea levels and storm surges.
What is overnutrition? when energy use is less than energy intake
What percentage of the world's grains are used to make biofuels? 20%
What percentage of income is spent on food by people in less-developed, poor countries? 70%
Identify a benefit to irrigating crops. boosts crop productivity on farms
True or False: Genetically modified crops could reduce biodiversity. True
Using feed lots to raise animals is beneficial, how? reduces land use
What percentage of the US population gets water and electricity service from the Colorado River? 10%
How much direct water use is lost because of leaks? 14%
What is the percent of China's cities are facing water shortages? 67%
Of all the groundwater and surface water withdrawn in the US, what part is used for cooling electric power plants? 41%
How many more times faster is the US withdrawing groundwater than recharging it? 4 x
What action was NOT recommended to states using the Colorado River basin to help address water supply problems? Lowering the price of water taken from the river
True or False: A disadvantage of dam and reservoir systems is the increase flooding downstream. False
True or False: Populations of local animals around the Aral Sea have remained stable. False
What is the most efficient method of water delivery to crops? trickle or drip irrigation
What is gray water? Water that is used and drained from showers, sinks, dishwashers and tubs.
Four primary goals of a dam and reservoir system: to produce electricity, to supply water for irrigation, to provide recreational activities, and to reduce downstream flooding
True or False: Satellites can be used to detect changes in ground water supplies. True
Letting natural evaporation remove the water in large shallow basins Not a method to IMPROVE desalination
What type of rock is made from the weathered remains of other rocks? sedimentary
Plates that move opposite but parallel directions along a fault are called, what? transform fault
As the price of many metals rises, interest has increased to mine for them where? the ocean floor
How many metric tons of mineral resources are used, on average, by each person in the US each year? 22 ton
Which disturbs more land, surface or subsurface mining? surface mining
Waste soil and rock removed during mining is called, what? spoil
Created by: ccarlough