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Endocrine System

A gland above the kidney that produces hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and other functions. Adrenal
A chemical messenger produced by a gland and transported by the bloodstream that regulates specific processes in the body. Hormone
An endocrine gland in the neck that produces parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid
A small gland near the center of the brain that secrets melatonin. Pineal gland
The endocrine gland at the base of the brain that controls growth and development. Pituitary
The lymphoid organ that produces T-cells Thymus
The gland in the neck that secretes hormones that regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate. Thyroid Gland
The "BLANK" is a set of organs that secretes hormones directly into the circulatory system. Endocrine system
The action of the endocrine system relies upon "BLANK" to transport hormones, chemical messengers secreted by ductless glands, to the cells and organs on which they have an effect (target cells). Blood circulation
Because blood flow is employed to transmit hormones from gland to target organ, it takes longer for a "BLANK" to cause a regulatory response than it takes the neurons of the nervous system to initiate a response. Hormone-releasing stimulus
Hormones remain in the blood stream after a neuron’s signal has ended. Therefore, the actions of the endocrine system have a ___________compared to the nervous system. Prolonged duration
One endocrine role of the pancreas is to release "BLANK" , a hormone that triggers the uptake of glucose into cells, thus lowering blood glucose levels Insulin
An "BLANK" gland, such as a salivary gland, is one that delivers its secretions by a tube to an epithelial surface or mucosa. Exocrine
The "BLANK" is unique among organs in the body, because it secretes both enzymes and hormones. Pancreas
One distinction between "BLANK" glands and other glands of the body is that endocrine glands do not have associated ducts. Endocrine
Hormones are controlled by Feedback systems
The same cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin also detect Levels of glucose.
"BLANK" of the pancreas are also able to detect blood glucose levels. When blood glucose levels are too low, "BLANK" secrete a different hormone "BLANK" . Alpha cells, glucagon
Glucagon stimulates its target cells in the liver to convert hepatic glycogen stores into "BLANK" and release that "BLANK" into the blood. Glucose
Both kinds of "BLANK" producing hormones that regulate blood sugar amounts through Negative feedback Pancreatic cells
"BLANK" is a disease that results from a pancreatic hormone regulation malfunction. Diabetes
Most hormone levels in the body are regulated through Negative feedback.
Whether a specific hormone is secreted is often influenced by the production of a "BLANK" or an "BLANK" . Releasing hormone or Inhibiting hormone.
The "BLANK" is a location in the brain that is an integration center between the endocrine and nervous system. Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus produces releasing hormones that stimulate and inhibiting hormones that restrict the production of several hormones produced by the "BLANK" Anterior pituitary.
The anterior pituitary secretes Growth hormone
The anterior pituitary is stimulated or suppressed by specific releasing hormones or inhibiting hormones secreted by the Hypothalamus
In the case of "BLANK" the secretion of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary fails to stop. Gigantism,
Thyroid hormone’s release from the thryroid gland is initiated by an anterior pituitary secretion called Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
The release of thyroid-stimulating hormone is triggered by the presence of "BLANK" secreted by the hypothalamus. Thyroid releasing hormone (TRH)
The presence of "BLANK" in the bloodstream causes negative feedback inhibition on the release of both TSH (from the pituitary) and TRH (from the hypothalamus). TH
A malfunction of these regulatory feedback loops leading to the overproduction of thyroid hormone is called Hyperthyroidism.
Positive feedback causes an "BLANK" in the secretion of a hormone, rather than cessation at a homeostatic set point or range Increase
One hormone secreted during childbirth is "BLANK" a chemical produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary. Oxytocin,
"BLANK" a hormone that plays a role in maintaining circadian rhythms, is produced by the pineal gland in the center of the brain. Melatonin
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which is secreted by the "BLANK" stimulates development of eggs in ovaries and sperm in testes. Anterior pituitary
This hormone also stimulates the production of the ovaries’ primary hormonal secretion, estrogen Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
A different hormone produced by the anterior pituitary, "BLANK" , is responsible for triggering ovulation in female gonads (ovaries) and the production of testosterone by male gonads (testes). Luteinizing hormone
"BLANK" is the primary hormone secreted by the testes, and it is also secreted in small quantities by the "BLANK" of men and women. Testosterone, adrenal gland
Steroid hormones are Fat-soluble hormones
Both testosterone and estrogen are derived from "BLANK" . Cholesterol
As a result, like all steroid hormones (hormones made from cholesterol), their lipid composition allows them to pass easily through "BLANK" and "BLANK" Cell membranes and Nuclear membranes
During puberty, increased levels of testosterone and estrogen cause the development of Secondary sex characteristics
Nonsteroid hormones Water-soluble hormones
The receptor sites of "BLANK" are on the outer surface of the target cells’ membrane Nonsteroid hormones
Water-soluble hormones cannot pass between the phospholipids of cell membranes. Instead, these hormones "BLANK" which are proteins embedded in the target cell membranes. Bind to cell surface receptors
Some nonsteroid hormones also have an immune function. "BLANK" and the other hormones secreted by the thymus fit into this category Thymosin
The thymus, a gland located behind the "BLANK" in adults, is considerably larger in children until about 6 years of age. This gland is also a "BLANK" organ, and it is the place where the immune system’s T-cells are produced. Manubrium, lymphoid
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is also a "BLANK" hormone. Nonsteroid
PTH is produced in the "BLANK" , a small grouping of usually four bean-shaped endocrine glands on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland Parathyroid
The parathyroid secretes PTH when plasma calcium levels are Low (hypocalcemia).
Parathyroid hormone indirectly activates "BLANK" causing the resorption of calcium from bones. Osteoclasts
PTH hormone also works in the excretory system to increase "BLANK" levels by inhibiting the kidneys’ ability to transfer calcium ions to urine. Plasma calcium
Steroid hormones: Testosterone Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Testes Promotes development of male sex characteristics
Steroid hormones: Estrogen Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Ovaries Promotes development female sex characteristics
Non -Steroid hormones: Epinephrine Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Adrenal Regulates heart rate, blood pressure
Non -Steroid hormones: Follicle-stimulating hormone Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Anterior pituitary Stimulates development of eggs in ovaries and sperm in testes.
Non -Steroid hormones: Glucagon Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Pancreas Triggers liver to convert hepatic glycogen stores into glucose and release glucose into the blood.
Non -Steroid hormones: Growth hormone Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Anterior pituitary Stimulate tissue growth
Non -Steroid hormones: Inhibiting hormones Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Hypothalamus Restrict the production of certain hormones
Non -Steroid hormones: Insulin Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Pancreas A hormone that triggers the influx of glucose into cells, thus lowering blood glucose levels.
Non -Steroid hormones: Luteinizing hormone Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Anterior pituitary Triggers ovulation in ovaries and the production of testosterone by testes
Non -Steroid hormones: Melatonin Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Pineal Plays a role in maintaining circadian rhythms
Non -Steroid hormones: Oxytocin Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Posterior pituitary Stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth
Non -Steroid hormones: Parathyroid hormone Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Parathyroid Elevate Plasma Calcium levels
Non -Steroid hormones: Releasing hormones Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Hypothalamus Stimulate the production of certain hormones
Non -Steroid hormones: Thyroid hormone Secreting gland: Example of effect on target tissue: Thyroid Regulates growth, development and metabolic rate.
Created by: bonitasoul
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