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Biology

Definitions for grade 10 Biology unit

TermDefinition
Cells The smallest unit that can peform the functions of life
cell division the process by which a parent cell divides into two identical daughter cells
diffusion is the movement of molecules from area where there is high concentration to area where there is low concentration of molecules
organ a combination of several types of tissue working together to perform a specific function
tissue a cluster of similar cells that share the same specialized structure and functions
cancer cells with abnormal genetic material that are dividing uncontrollably and can spread to other body parts
mutagen a substance or factor that can cause a mutation in DNA
stem cell an unspecialized cell that can produce various types of specialized cells
tumour an abnormal clump or group of cells
cell specialization the process by which cells develop from similar cells into those that have specific functions within a multicellular organism
cell differentiation a stage of development of a living organism during which specialized cells form
xylem vascular tissue that conducts water and minerals from the roots to the leaves
phloem vascular tissue that transports sap carrying the sugars produced through photosynthesis from the leaves to the rest of the plant
meristematic stem cell an unspecialized cell found in plants that gives rise to a specific specialized cell`
gall an abnormal growth of plant tissue caused by insects or micro-organisms
dermal tissue the outermost protective layer of a plant
endoscopy a technique for looking inside the body that involves inserting a tiny light and camera attached to a flexible tube into a body opening, such as the mouth or small incision
mucus protective secretions from the stomach wall that prevent the stomach lining from breaking
gastric juices digestive secretions from the stomach wall composed of hydrochloric acid and pepsin
esophagus a muscular tube between the pharynx and the stomach
small intestine organ between the stomach and the large intestine, where most digestion occurs
alveoli the tiny air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs
aorta the main blood vessel carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to branch arteries that lead to the rest of the body
valve flexible fall of tissue that ensures one way flow of blood
pulmonary artery vessels that carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
cilia microscopic, hair-like projections on epithelial cells that may secrete mucus and help to keep foreign particles out of the body
leeuwenhoek microscopes allowed people to see clear images of tiny organisms
brightfieqld/ dark filed microscopes placing a thing metal disc beneath the stage between the light source and the objective lens, converts a brightfield microscope to a darkfield microscop
fluorescence microscope requires that the specimen be treated with special fluorescent stains
trasmissione electron microscope beams electrons through a specimen. denser portions of the specimen allow fewer electrons to pass through and appear darker in the image
phase contrast microscope it emphasizes slight differences in a specimen's capacity to bend light waves, there by enhancing light and dark regions without using stains
cytoplasm fluid material inside of cell, it consists of cytosol (the liquid part) and many specialized organelles
mitosis the division of the nucleus into two identical nuclei is now complete
cytokinesis the divine of the rest of the cell (cytosol and organelles)
benign tumour tumour that remains in one place on the body (non cancerous)
malignant tumour tumour that is capable of spreading throughout the body (cancerous)
cell suicide (apoptosis) the cell breaks down and the cell contents are distributed for other cells to use
hypertension high blood pressure
arteriosclerosis thickening of the walls arteries which narrows the passage way for blood
taproot one main root that grows larger and thicker than the rest
fibrous spreads out horizontally near the surface of the soil
system a group of tissues and organs that perform a specific function
root system all the roots that lie below the ground
shoot system consists of the plant above ground and is responsible for support and performing photosynthesis
cohesion ability of water molecules to cling to each other. holds the water in the xylem together
adhesion tendency of water molecules to stick to the walls of xylem preventing water from flowing back down to the roots
Created by: caitlynkummer