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7th Gr Sci Sem1 Exam

7th Grade Science Semester 1 Exam Review

QuestionAnswer
List the 5 levels of organization of living things. Cell – tissue – organ – organ system – organism
What level of organization is BLOOD? Tissue
What level of organization is HEART? Organ
What level of organization is DELTOID MUSCLE? Organ (specific example of a muscle)
What level of organization is BRAIN? Organ
What level of organization is MOUTH, STOMACH, INTESTINES (ALL WORKING TOGETHER)? Organ System
What level of organization is HUMERUS (AN ARM BONE)? Organ (it's a specific example of a bone)
List the 3 postulates (parts) of cell theory 1. All living things are made of cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of life 3. Cells come from pre-existing cells
Cell wall To protect the cell by providing structure. Similar function to the skeletal system
Chloroplast Green Color/pigment in plants. Produces sugar (glucose) using light energy. This process is called photosynthesis.
Cytoplasm Jelly like liquid that supports the organelles. Function can be compared to the circulatory system.
Mitochondria Power House. Produces ATP (will be stated as thermal or mechanical energy) from glucose. This process is called cellular respiration.
Nucleus The Brain. Holds on to and protects the DNA. Function can be compared to the reproductive system.
Cell membrane Protects the cell by controlling what goes in and out of it.
Vacuole Hold and transport food, water and waste around and out of the cell. Function can be compared to the excretory system.
Describe the process of photosynthesis. Include the reactants and products as well as the energy transformation. Process where light energy (radiant) is taken in by chloroplasts (found in plant cells & some other cells such as some protists) and energy's converted into glucose (chemical). Reactants: light, carbon dioxide & water Products: glucose and oxygen
Describe the process of cellular respiration. Include the reactants and products as well as the energy transformation. Process where glucose (chemical) is used by mitochondria (found in plant & animal cells) to produce ATP (stored cellular energy). Chem energy converted to thermal & mechanical energy. Reactants: oxygen&glucose. Products: carbon dioxide, water, & ATP
Define heredity. Heredity is the passing of traits from one generation to the next.
What is the genetic material that contains traits that are passed from one generation to the next? What are some of the other names it goes by? DNA, genes, genetic material, etc.
Sexual reproduction 2 parents, offspring are not identical to parents.
Asexual reproduction 1 parent, offspring are identical to parents.
Endocrine system produces hormones (chemical messengers). Major organ is glands.
Reproductive system allows for sexual reproduction. Major organs include testis and ovaries.
Nervous system controls bodily functions using electrical signals. Major organs include brain, spinal cord and nerves.
Skeletal system supports the body, protects internal organs, works with muscular system to create movement, produces blood cells. Major organs are bones.
Muscular system works with the skeletal system to create movement. Major organs are muscles. 3 kinds of muscle: skeletal, smooth and cardiac.
Digestive system mechanically and chemically breaks down food into nutrients that can be absorbed. Major organs include mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, small intestines, large intestines, colon.
Circulatory system circulates (transports) oxygen and nutrients to and removes waste from all parts of the body. Major organs include heart, blood vessels (veins & arteries), capillaries
Respiratory system breathing allows oxygen to come into the body and carbon dioxide to be expelled from the body. Major organs include mouth/nose, trachea, bronchioles, lungs, diaphragm, alveoli.
Integumentary system aka the skin system. Protects the body, produces Vit D, temperature regulation, sensory organ. Major organ are the skin, hear and nails.
Excretory system to excrete (get rid of) waste from the body. Includes 4 systems: urinary (urine), integumentary (sweat), respiratory (carbon dioxide) and digestive (feces).
stimulus something that can be perceived by the nervous system (this is the cause)
response the reaction your body has (the effect).
Describe examples of internal and external stimuli. External stimuli come from outside of your body such as a ball being thrown at you. Internal stimuli come from inside your body such as something you have already eaten causing you to vomit.
What is the function of xylem? To transport water and nutrients form the roots of the plant up to the rest of the plant.
What is the function of phloem? To transport sugar (glucose) from the leaves down to the rest of the plant.
Turgor pressure the pressure created from the central vacuole pushing out against the cell wall of a plant cell. This keeps plants from wilting.
Tropism plant growth in response to a stumulus.
Phototropism plant growth in response to light
Geotropism (or gravitropism) plant growth in response to gravity
Thigmotropism plant growth in response to touch
Hydrotropism plant growth in response to water
What happens to a plant if it has low turgor pressure? If a plant cell has low turgor pressure the plant will start to wilt.
Positive tropisms cause the plant to grow towards the stimulus. Such as a plant stem growing towards light or it’s roots growing towards the pull of gravity.
Negative tropisms cause the plant to grow away from the stimulus. Such as a plant stem growing away from the pull of gravity or plant roots growing away from light.
Atom smallest thing that is still a kind of element; O2 has 2 oxygen atoms.
Element has specific physical characteristics; H2O has 2 elements, hydrogen and oxygen.
Compound is a molecule made of more than one element; O2 is not a compound, but H2O is. Both are molecules though.
Reactant all of the items before the arrow in a chemical equation
Product all of the items after the arrow in a chemical equation
How can you tell if a chemical equation is balanced? Count the atoms. Balanced if there are the same number before and after the arrow. Law of conservation of mass/matter.
2 Fe + 3 Cl2 −−→ 2 FeCl3 2 Fe 2 Fe 6 Cl 6 Cl Balanced
4 Fe + 2 O2 −−→ 2 Fe2O3 4 Fe 4 Fe 4 O 6 O Unbalanced
2 FeBr3 + 3 H2 SO4 −−→ Fe2(SO4 )3 + 4 HBr 2 Fe 2 Fe 6 Br 4 Br 6 H 4 H 3 S 3 S 12 O 12 O Unbalanced
How many molecules of H2 SO4 are in there in 2 FeBr3 + 3 H2 SO4 ? 3 molecules
How many molecules of Fe2(SO4 )3 are there in 2 FeBr3 + 3 H2 SO4 ? 1 molecule
How many hydrogen atoms are in 4 HBr? 4 hydrogen atoms
Created by: SHigh