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TEAS -Science

Gastrointestinal System

The opening of the rectum from which solid waste is expelled Anus
A mass of food that has been chewed and swallowed Bolus
The semi fluid mass of partly digested food that moves from the stomach to the small intestine. Chyme
The break down of food by enzymes for absorption. Enzymatic digestion
The organ that stores bile. Gall bladder
Also known as the colon, where vitamins and water are absorbed before feces is stored prior to elimination Large intestine
The organ that produces bile, regulates glycogen storage and performs other bodily functions. Liver
The oral cavity at the entry to the alimentary canal. Mouth
The gland of the digestive and endocrine systems that produces insulin and secretes pancreatic juices. Pancreas
A series of muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract. Peristalsis
The last section of the large intestine, ending with the anus. Rectum
The clear liquid found in the mouth, also known as spit. Saliva
The part of the GI tract between the stomach and large intestine that includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, where digestion and absorption of food occurs Small intestine
The organ between the esophagus and small intestine in which the major portion of digestion occurs Stomach
The gastrointestinal system is also known as The digestive system or the alimentary canal
"BLANK" absorb the digested nutrients Blood vessels
"BLANK" is involved in moving material through the digestive system is under parasympathetic nervous system control. Smooth muscle
The digestive system functions to break down "BLANK" into small nutrient molecules that are then absorbed into the circulatory system and distributed to the cells of the tissues throughout the body. Macro molecules
There are five main steps in digestion: Ingestion, the intake of food Digestion, the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food Movement of the food through the GI tract through peristalsis Absorption of nutrients into tissue cells Elimination of undigested waste
Food enters the system through the "BLANK" where three pairs of salivary glands secrete saliva that contains "BLANK" an enzyme that begins carbohydrate (e.g.,starch) digestion in the mouth. mouth, amylase
The teeth begin the mechanical breakdown of food by chewing and mixing it with the enzymes and saliva. This is called: Mastication
The tongue forms a "BLANK" (small parcel of chewed food) and moves it toward the pharynx. Bolus
The "BLANK" is a cavity between the mouth and esophagus that serves as a passageway for food and air. Pharynx
The bolus is swallowed, this is called "BLANK" , and the "BLANK" closes off the opening to the trachea so food only enters the ."BLANK" Deglutination, Epiglottis, Esophagus.
The "BLANK" is a long, muscular tube that carries food to the stomach by a wavelike involuntary smooth muscle contraction called "BLANK" . Esophagus, Peristalsis.
When food reaches the distal portion of the esophagus, the "BLANK" between the esophagus and stomach relaxes to let food pass into the stomach. Sphincter
The "BLANK" then contracts, preventing stomach acid from backing up into the esophagus a condition known as "BLANK" Sphincter , Gastric reflux.
The stomach has folds called "BLANK" that increase the holding capacity of the stomach to about 1 liter. Rugae
The mechanical mixing action of the stomach mixes the boluses of food with gastric juices to form partially digested liquid called Chyme
Gastric juice is a mixture of "BLANK" , "BLANK" and "BLANK" secreted by the various cells of the stomach. Mucus, Hydrochloric acid, and Digestive enzymes
The chief cells secrete "BLANK" , an inactive form of pepsin used in protein digestion, and the enzyme gastric"BLANK" , which digests fats Pepsinogen, Lipase
The "BLANK" secrete hydrochloric acid, which converts the inactive pepsinogen to its active "BLANK". Parietal cells, Pepsin form
"BLANK" in the gastric lining secrete mucous for protection against the highly acidic hydrogen chloride. Goblet cells
The hormone "BLANK" acts to stimulate the secretion of the gastric juices, and the hormone "BLANK" stimulates the appetite and promotes storage of fats. Gastrin, ghrelin
The small intestine is divided into three major regions: The duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
The "BLANK" is the short section attached to the pyloric sphincter of the stomach. Duodenum
As chyme leaves the stomach, it is acted upon by enzymes from the Liver, Gall bladder, and Pancreas
The "BLANK" produces alkaline bile secreted via the "BLANK" to aid in the emulsification and breakdown of fats. Liver, gall bladder
The "BLANK" secretes pancreatic juice, which is a mixture of water, salts, bicarbonate, and many digestive enzymes. Pancreas
The "BLANK" neutralizes acidic chyme Bicarbonate
The enzymatic digestion of fats is by Lipase
The enzymatic digestion of starches is by Amylase
The enzymatic digestion of proteins is by Trypsin
The pancreas is also an "BLANK" gland. It secretes the hormones "BLANK" and "BLANK" for the control of blood glucose levels. Endocrine gland, Insulin and glucagon
Absorption of nutrients, including vitamin B12, occurs in multiple folds, known as "BLANK" and "BLANK" of the "BLANK" and "BLANK" Villi and Microvilli, jejunum and ileum
From the small intestine, blood carrying nutrients passes to the "BLANK" through the "BLANK" , allowing the "BLANK" to metabolize consumed toxins and store glucose as glycogen. Liver, Hepatic portal duct, liver
The large intestine includes the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.
Chyme leaves the "BLANK" and enters into the "BLANK" ileum, cecum
The cecum has a projection known as the "BLANK" which can play a role in the immune system. Appendix
The colon is divided into four sections: ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid.
As undigested food, known as "BLANK" travels through the colon, water is absorbed. Feces
Bacteria in the colon metabolize the fecal matter via "BLANK" and produce vitamins, such as "BLANK" to be absorbed. Fermentation, vitamin K
Fecal waste accumulates and is stored in the "BLANK" until it is ejected through the "BLANK" by defecation. Rectum, Anus
Created by: bonitasoul
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