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Final Exam Semester1

Vocabulary for Biology final exam semester 1

Eukaryote Complex cell with internal membranes(membrane bound organelles). Includes animal and plant cells.
ATP Molecule responsible for transferring energy from organic compounds such as glucose to power up cellular processes.
Passive transport Transport of molecules from HIGH to LOW concentration of molecules. Examples include Osmosis, diffusion, and facilitated diffusion.
Osmosis A type of passive transport in which water is transported from a HIGH concentration of water molecules to a LOW concentration of water molecules.
Diffusion Simple random movement of molecules from HIGH concentration to LOW concentration.
Prokaryote Simple cell such as bacteria, does not have a nucleus nor any other membrane bound organelles.
Facilitated diffusion A type of passive transport in which molecules are transported from HIGH to LOW concentration by using a carrier protein.
Mitochondria Organelle responsible for breaking glucose to make ATP in a process known as cellular respiration.
Enzyme A protein that speeds up chemical reactions by attaching to a substrate in a site known as the active site.
Reaction time The time it takes for a reaction to occur. If the reaction time is high, then the enzyme is slow, if the reaction time is low then the enzyme is fast.
Cell membrane A semipermeable organelle that allows certain things to go in and certain things to go out in order to maintain homeostasis. Water can cross in and out.
Surface projections Structures outside a virus that allow the virus to attach to a host cell.
Membrane bound organelles Structures inside Eukaryotic cells. Prokaryote cells (bacteria) and viruses do NOT have these type of structures.
Virus An infective agent that is mainly made of genetic material (DNA or RNA), and a capsid.
Nucleotide The monomer (building block) of Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA). It's made up of a nitrogen base, phosphate, and sugar.
Nitrogenous base The structure in a nucleotide that changes and determines the genetic code.
Proteins Biomolecule in the cell membrane that allows bigger molecules to cross
Active transport Type of transport that requires protein pumps and ATP for molecules to cross from LOW to HIGH concentration.
DNA Molecule that stores information through the order of nitrogen bases. This information is then used to make proteins.
Cytosine Pairs up with Guanine
Adenine Pairs up with Thymine in DNA and with Uracil in RNA.
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorous Main elements found in Nucleic acids such as DNA
DNA Replication Where a genetic molecule is copied during synthesis to make two identical copies of the original genetic molecule.
Mitosis Cell division that makes a total of two identical cells from the parental cell.
Meiosis Cell division that makes a total of four different daughter cells to increase genetic variation.
Anaphase Stage in mitosis in which the spindle fibers separate the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell.
Synthesis Stage of the cell cycle that occurs after G1 and before G2. In this stage the DNA is replicated.
Interphase The cell spends 90% of its time in this phase. It consists of G1, S, and G2.
Gene expression Only specific genes in the cell are transcribed and translated to make specific proteins in a cell. This is how DNA information is show into traits.
Differentiation Stem cells (baby cells) in the body have the exact same DNA and express only specific proteins to make specialized cells such as a heart cell, muscle cell, brain cell.
mRNA molecule that copies the genetic message from the DNA and carries it to the Ribosome.
tRNA molecule that carries the amino acids and matches them by reading the mRNA.
Frameshift Type of gene mutation that involves the deletion or insertion of one nucleotide (base) and shifts the reading frame after the mutation causing in a change of all the amino acids after the mutation.
Cancer/tumors Are formed due to unregulated cell division- faulty checkpoints in the cell cycle.
Inherited mutations Are due to disruptions in the process of meiosis which affect gametes (sex cells)
Created by: bireyher
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