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OB Test # 4

QuestionAnswer
A downward displacement of the bladder toward the vaginal opening causing bulging.Weakened support between the vagina and bladder.C/O: pelvic pressure, urinary problems, back/pelvic pain. Cystocele
between the vagina and rectum.C/O: pelvic/rectal pressure, fatigue, back painTx: anterior and posterior Colporrhaphy Rectocele
Uterus protrudes downward into the upper vagina, pulling vagina with it.C/O: pain in groin, backache in sacral areaMgmt: Kegel exercises, Pessary-ring, Surgery Uterine Prolapse
Simultaneous vaginal and abdominal palpatation of internal structures: cervix, uterus, adnexa (ovaries,fallopian tubes),vagina,rectum Bimanual Palpatation
Usually due to physiologic variations in the menstrual cycle.Symptoms:abd bloating,pain,distention,nausea,bowel changes Ovarian Cysts
Endocrine disorder occurring in child bearing yearsSymptoms: irregular periods,obesity,hirsutism (excessive hair growth),infertility problems-due to excessive androgens Polycystic Ovarian Disease
Cervical os is dilated and uterine endometrium is scraped with a curette. D&C (dilatation and curettage)
Allows visualization of pelvic structures. Requires general anesthesia. Laparoscopy
Cervial and vaginal exam using a colposcope to obtain tissue for analysis. Abnormal Pap and Colposcopy
Painful menstruation.Begins a day before or with menses and ends by the end of menses. Dysmenorrhea
Cramping without other pathology.Prostaglandins produced by the uterus are the primary cause.C/O: pain in abdomen,back,thighs,nausea,diarrhea,fatigue,h/a Primary Dysmenorrhea
Associated with pathology.Treatment based on treating the underlying pathology. Secondary Dysmenorrhea
Absence of menses. Amenorrhea
When menstruation is not established by age 16. Due to: congenital abnormalities, structural abnormalities, hormonal absence or imbalances.Treatment is based on cause. Primary Amenorrhea
When established menses stops.Treatment is based on cause. Secondary Amenorrhea
Dysfunctional bleeding without an organic cause. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Symptoms:irritability,lethargy,depression,crying,sleep disturbances,hostility,migraines,syncope,n/v,constipation,bloating,craving for sweets,acne,breast swelling and tenderness; these usually occur between ovulation and onset of menses. Premenstrual Syndrome
prolonged, heavy bleeding during the regular cycle. Menorrhea
Bleeding between regular menstrual periods. May be r/t first cycles of birth control,or may signal pathology such as cervical cancer, uterine masses/tumors, ectopic pregnancy. Metrorrhagia
Short duration of menstrual flow. Hypomenorrhea
Abnormally long menstrual flow. Hypermenorrhea
Uterine fibroids.May cause increased uterine size,heavy menstrual bleeding,pelvic pressure,infertility.Tx: Myomectomy,endometrial ablation,uterine artery embolization,hysterectomy Uterine Leiomyoma
Benign endometrial tissue.Symptoms:dysmenorrhea,abnormal bleeding,pelvic/vaginal pain. Endometriosis
AKA-Change of lifeMenses ceaseTime marking end of reproductive capabilities.45-52 y/o Menopause
Time prior to menopause when woman moves from normal ovulation to cessation of menses.Includes hot flashes,PMS,irregular periods,insomnia,mood changes,decreased interest in sex. Perimenopause
Research shows risks outweigh benefits. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
Inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility
A couple who have never had a child. Primary Infertility
A couple with at least one delivery, but currently unable to achieve or maintain pregnancy. Secondary Infertility
An absolute factor preventing reproduction-tubal ligation. Sterility
A couple who has difficulty conceiving because both partners have reduced fertility. Subfertility
Most result from failure of neural tube to close. Unknown cause. Dx may be made prenatally by ultrasound and elevated AFP levels. CNS Defects
Most common CNS defect.Usually occurs in lumbosacral area.Often accompanied by hydrocephalus. Spina Bifida
Herniation of cord and meninges through opening near spine. Myelomeningocele
Abnormal increase in CSF & enlarged cerebral ventriclesCauses:malformations in the brain & intrauterine infectionsSymptoms:bulging anterior fontanel,abnormal/rapidly increasing head circumference,enlarged forehead (late sign) Hydrocephalus
Herniation of the brain and meninges through a skull defect that is treated with surgical repair if no major brain malformation is present. Encephalocele
Absence of both cerebral hemispheres and of the overlying skull. This condition is incompatible with life. Frequently stillborn or dies within hours/days. Care is only supportive. Grief counseling. Anencephaly
Occur anywhere from mouth to anus.Some apparent visually at birth.Others become apparent with further assessment of symptoms. Gastrointestinal Congenital Anomalies
Common. Congenital midline opening in lip or palate resulting from failure of primary palate to fuse. Cause:multiple genetic & environmental factors (infection,alcohol,radiation,steroid usage,anticonvulsants,etc.)Tx:surgical repair done at 6-12 wks Cleft Lip/Palate
Mild to severe respiratory distress.Absence of breath sounds on one side (usually left).Presence of bowel sounds in chest.Scaphoid (sunken) abdomen.If large hernia, lung may be undeveloped on that side (hypoplastic). Diaphragmatic Hernia
Congenital deformity in which portions of foot and ankle are twisted out of normal position. Varying degrees of severity.Causes:genetic predisposition,in utero compression,abnormal embryonic development Clubfoot
Meatus opens below the glans penis or anywhere along the ventral surface of the penis.Tx: surgical correction during first year; no circumcision.
Created by: crafthl