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Grade 10

Cell Theory All living organisms are made up of one or more cells. The cell is the simplest unit of life. All cells come from other cells, they do not come from non living matter.
Cytoplasm Holds organelles in place and allows material to move through cells.
Found in... Plants and animal cells.
Cell Membrane Protects cell and controls what enters and leaves.
Found in... Plants and animal cells.
Nucleus Controls the cell, holds genetic material for cell.
Found in... Plants and animal cells.
Nucleolus Used to make special proteins
Chromosomes Genetic information stored in long thread like molecules.
Found in... Plant and animal cells.
Mitochondria Site respiration, converts sugar into energy and carbon dioxide and water.
Found in... Plants and animal cells.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Canals attached to the nucleus, allows materials to move through the cell.
Found in... Plants and animal cells.
Ribosomes Organelle that builds proteins essential for cell growth.
Found in... Plants and animal cells.
Golgi bodies Produce lysosomes, package materials for the cell
Found in... Plants and animal cells.
Vacuoles Stores food, waste, or water.
Found in... Plants and animal cells.
Centrioles Protein structure critical to cell division.
Found in... Plants and animal cells.
Cell wall Protects and supports the cell.
Found in... Plants.
Large vacuole Store water to hold up the plant.
Found in... Plants.
Chloroplasts Uses sunlight to make sugar molecules
Found in... Plants.
Why do you need cell division? Growth, repair dead cells, replace tissues, reproduction, size of cell
What do stem cells do? Stem cells can turn into specialized cells.
A cell should remain in interphase and not divide if: Signals from surrounding cells tell the cell not to divide, there are not enough nutrients to provide for cell growth, the DNA within the nucleus has not been replicated, the DNA is damaged.
Prophase The nucleoli disappears. The chromosomes form and line up in pairs at the centromere. The spindle fibres are forming and are made of microtubules. The centrosomes move away from one another and lengthen the spindle fibres between them.
Metaphase The chromosomes are lined up at the ‘metaphase plate’ an imaginary line. The chromosomes are attached to a microtubule which form the spindle.
Anaphase The paired chromosomes separate. The poles move farther apart. There are now two sets of complete chromosomes.
Telophase Nuclear envelopes are formed and the nucleoli reappear. The chromatin of the chromosomes uncoils. Mitosis is complete.
Cytokenisis The process of when the two cells separate and become individual.
Why did we put iodine on the cells ? To see the clear substances in the cell.
What does an onion cell do? It stores glucose.
What cell structure dominated the cell? The cell wall because of the higher quantities than other components.
Why do we not see chloroplasts in the onion cell? The grow underground so they get no sunlight. Photosynthesis does not occur.
Cell division Cells send chemical messages when the need to divide and then again when they need to stop dividing. Cancer cells only divide as their job.
Mutations Mutated cells happens when the cell makes a mistake (usually when it is stressed) and it turns cancerous.
Cancer cells They use a lot of energy. Do not spend any time in interphase. They are identified by their strange nucleus size.
Tumours A ball of cancerous cells.
Causes of cancer cells - u. v. rays from the sun on your skin - tar from cigarettes in the lungs - alcohol may affect liver
Cancer Treatment: Surgery Cut the tumour and surrounding tissue to make sure whole tumour is removed.
Cancer Treatment: Radiation Beams of radiation are directed at the cancerous tumours. Patients will only have a small dose to kill the cancer cells but it will also affect other cells.
Cancer Treatment: Chemotherapy Drugs that stop ALL cells from dividing. The cancer cells will die before the other cells. Your body will weaken.
Malignant Tumours They break and spread to other organs.
Benign Tumours Stay in one spot
An example of an organ found in multiple systems Liver
An example of an organ only found in one system Stomach
What are the two types of stem cells? Embryonic and Tissue (adult)
What do Embryonic cells do? They can differentiate into ANY type of cell.
What do Tissue cells do? They can differentiate into certain types of cells. They can also only exist in specialized tissue.
What does the digestive system do? Takes in food, digests it, then excretes the remaining waste.
Why does food have to be digested? To send the nutrients to the rest of the body.
What are the organs in the digestive system? - mouth - esophagus - stomach - large intestine (colon) - small intestine
What does the circulatory system do? Transport substances around the body.
What are the 3 main parts in the system? - blood - heart - blood vessels
What are red blood cells? A protein called hemoglobin that allows them to transfer oxygen places.
What are white blood cells? Fight against infections.
What are platelets? They help blood clots.
What is plasma? A liquid that carries the blood cells.
What tissues are the heart made of? - Cardiac muscle tissue - Nerve tissue - Connective tissue
Arteries - Blood flows away from the heart - Has greater blood pressure - Very thick walls - Medium size
Veins - Blood flows to the heart - Has low blood pressure - Thin walls - Largest diameter
Capillaries - Carries blood from arteries to veins - Low blood pressure - Very thin walls - Smallest diameter
How do neuron send messages through the body? Through electrical impulses.
What is the purpose of myelin? It insulates the nerves so the electrical signals can jump to other nerve cells.
How does multiple sclerosis occur? Your immune system attacks and damages the myelin.
Explain how the following systems are connected? Digestive and Circulatory: Nutrients from the digestive system pass through the circulatory system.
Respiration and Circulatory: Oxygen from the respiratory system goes to the circulatory system to turn into carbon dioxide to be sent back out of your respiratory system.
Muscular and Circulatory: The circulatory system must send a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to feed the muscles of the muscular system.
Nervous and Muscular: The nervous system controls the contractions of the muscles in the muscular system.
Created by: oconsoli1010