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Microbiology

Microbiology -Chapter 1

QuestionAnswer
one type of microscope that provides a three dimensional image of a specimen is the: scanning electron microscope
one type of microscope capable of observing living microorganisms is the: phase-contrast microscope
scientist most responsible for ending the controversy about spontaneous generation: Louis Pasteur
fossils of prokaryotes go back: 3.5 to 4 billion years
the correct descending order of the taxonomic categories is: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
complex communities of microorganisms on surfaces are called: biofilms
a relationship between organisms in which the waste product of one provides nutrients for another is called: commensalism
normal flora include: intestines, skin, and vagina
industries that uses microorganisms: cheese, wine, and chemical
all bacteria are ___ cells based on presence or absence of cellular structures. prokaryotic
cells that contain a nucleus are; eukaryotic cells
the taxonomic resource for information on bacteria is the: Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology
the proteins implicated in spongiform encephalopathy are: prions
the cleanup of different industrial waste is referred to as: bioremediation
Name and briefly describe the different types of microscopes. Light microscopes: use visible light • Bright-field microscopes are most commonly used to observe sectioned and stained tissues, organs, and microorganisms. • Dark-field microscopes are used for unfixed, unstained specimens, such as living organ
Describe Koch's postulates. Koch’s postulates state: • The microbe must be present in every animal with the disease. • The microbe can be isolated and grown in pure culture. • The cultured microorganism must cause the same disease in an inoculated (previously healthy)
Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound cell organelles. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound cell organelles.
Describe how foodborne diseases can be prevented. Foodborne disease generally can be prevented by the following: • Washing hands with hot, soapy water before food preparation, after using the bathroom, and after changing diapers. • Keeping raw meat, poultry, seafood, and their juices away from
Describe the role of microorganisms in food production. Many nonpathogenic microorganisms occur naturally in food, are beneficial, and are used as starter cultures to produce foods such as vinegar, sauerkraut, pickles, fermented milks, yogurt, cheese, and bread
foodborne disease results from consuming food that is contaminated with different pathogenic species of bacteria, viruses ,parasites, or microbial toxins
how to prevent foodborne *wash hands with hot, soapy water before food prep, using the bathroom, and changing diapers. *keep raw meat, poultry, seafood, and their juices away from prepared, ready to eat foods. * cooking foods thoroughly at high temperatures to kill harmful bact
waterborne disease general term used to describe diseases acquired from contaminated water supplies, resulting in four fifths of all illness in developing countries and a high infant death rate
airborne disease transmitted from infected people by coughing, sneezing, or talking. pathogens are in small mucous saliva particles suspended as aerosols
Typhoid fever (enteric fever) salmonella (water contaminated with feces and urine from carriers)
Giardiasis Giardia lamblia (water contaminated by feces of infected person or animal)
Created by: naponte1