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Microbiology -Chapter 2

the atomic number equals the number of: protons
a chemical bond in which electrons are equally shares is a: nonpolar covalent bond
the bond between water molecules is a: hydrogen bond
the outermost shell of an atom can hold up to: 8 electrons
the bond between sodium and chlorine atoms in sodium chloride is an: ionic bond
sucrose is composed of: glucose and fructose
the unit molecules of carbohydrates are: monosaccharides
the bond between amino acids is a: peptide bond
the RNA nucleotide base that pairs with adenine of DNA is: uracil
glucose and fructose are examples of: monosaccharides
neutrons are particles with a: 0 charge
an atom with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons is called an: isotope
a positively charged ion is called: cation
the breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones in the presence of water is called: hydrolysis
molecules that can absorb hydrogen ions are: buffers
From the strongest to the weakest, name and describe the different types of chemical bonds. Covalent bonds—a sharing of electrons • The strongest bond is a nonpolar covalent bond with an equal sharing of electrons. • An unequal sharing of electrons is a polar covalent bond. • An ionic bond occurs by transfer of electrons. • A
Describe anabolism and catabolism. In anabolic reactions substances/molecules are formed and energy is utilized/consumed; in catabolic reactions substances are broken down and release energy to form ATP.
Name and describe the function of proteins. The unit molecules of proteins are amino acids. Protein functions include the following: • Membrane proteins: integral and peripheral • Can be carrier molecules • Enzymes • Structural support
Compare and contrast saturated and unsaturated fats. Saturated fats do not have double bonds in the fatty acid chain; unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain.
Describe the complementary base pairing and compare DNA and RNA. DNA is a double helix; RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid. Complementary base pairing in DNA replication: Adenine is paired with thymine and cytosine with guanine. Complementary base pairing involving RNA: thymine is replaced by uracil.
parts of an atom center of the atom is the nucleus, which consist of positive charged particles called protons and particles without charge called neutrons.
atomic weight (atomic mass) equal to the number of protons and neutrons
atomic number indicates the number of protons in the atomic nucleus
covalent bonds result from a sharing of electrons between two atoms of the same element or between atoms of different elements
nonpolar covalent bonds electrons are equally distributed
polar covalent bonds covalent bonds between atoms of two different sized elements, in which the electrons are unequally distributed because they are pulled toward the larger atom
ionic bonds formed when one or more electrons from one atom are transferred to another
hydrogen bonds weak chemical bonds with only about 5% of the strength of covalent bonds
acids substances that release hydrogen ions (H+)
bases substances that release hydroxyl ions (OH-)
pH scale measurement of acidity or alkalinity of a solution
isotonic the solute concentration, and hence the osmotic pressure within the cell ,is the same as it is outside the cell. A cell placed in an isotonic solution will not change its cell volume
hypertonic the solute concentration in the cell is less than the extracellular environment, which causes a net loss of water from the cell, resulting in cell shrinkage. the cell shape becomes notched or crenated.
hypotonic the solute concentration in the extracellular environment is less than that inside the cell, causing the uptake of water into the cell, resulting in the bursting of the cell.
monosaccharides represent the unit molecules (monomers) of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose ,and deoxyribose.
disaccharides compounds formed when two monosaccharides combine the loss of a water molecule. Disaccharides include the following: -sucrose, composed of glucose and fructose -lactose, composed of glucose and galactose -maltose, composed of two glucose molecules
polysaccharides formed when many monosaccharides combine to form a larger compound
phospholipids consists of glycerol ,two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group at one end
triglycerides (fats and oils) consists of glycerol and fatty acid chains
DNA nucleic acid with a double helix structure containing the sugar deoxyribose and 10 bases per turn. DNA contains genetic code. Molecules ,adenine always pairs with thymine and guanine with cytosine.
RNA single stranded molecule, its sugar is ribose, and uracil replaces thymine. RNA is specialized for the synthesis of proteins
Created by: naponte1



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