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Microbiology

Microbiology -Chapter 10

QuestionAnswer
the branch of pharmacology that addresses drug amounts at various sites in the body after drug administration is called: pharmacokinetics
the generic name of a drug refers to its: nonproprietary name
for a drug to have an almost immediate systemic effect it is usually applied: by inhalation and rectally
the decrease in blood clotting by heparin occurs at which general site of action? extracellular
phase I reaction in biotransformation: oxidation
the determination of a drug dose response: normal frequency distribution
when the drug receptors are maximally activated, this is referred to as the: peak effect
a subacute toxic effect occurs when the adverse drug effect occurs: after repeated exposure for days
the specific antidote to botulinum toxin is: antitoxin
the body's metabolism of drugs is called: biotransformation
the study of the body's response to poisons and their harmful effect is referred to as: toxicology
drug administration, absorption, distribution, and clearance are collectively called: pharmacokinetics
the ED50 is a measure of the: dose response
the federal agency that approves the use of a specific drug is the: FDA
Name and describe five different branches of pharmacology. Pharmacodynamics—addresses drug-induced responses of the biochemical and physiological systems of the body in health, during disease and maladies. Pharmacokinetics—addresses drug amounts at various sites in the body after their administration. Pharmacot
Compare and contrast dose and time response. Dose response includes magnitude of response after a single dose, excluding other factors such as time. Time response measures time of drug administration, onset of time response, cessation of drug effect, peak effect time, duration of action time, latenc
Describe five variables that influence drug response. First Pass effect—biotransformation of a drug in the liver or GI tract subsequent to oral administration and before entering the general circulation. Chemical properties of drugs—include molecular weight, ionic change, and solubility. Toxic effects—typi
Compare and contrast nonspecific and specific treatments of suspected poisoning. Nonspecific treatment always includes support of respiration and circulation in addition to: • Removing the poison source • Identifying the poison • Administering the antidote • Instituting poison elimination procedures • Support
Discuss the public safety measures that need to be taken before a drug is approved. Preclinical research and development—1 to 3 years for synthesis and animal screening. Clinical research and development—2 to 10 years with phases I to III. Phase I trials done with volunteers; phases II and III tested in patients. New drug application r
ways the kidneys can use to achieve urine formation and drug clearance: glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption
Created by: naponte1