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Microbiology -Chapter 12

a worldwide epidemic is considered is a: pandemic disease
a vector that transmits pathogens and also serves as host for a part of the pathogen's life cycle is a: biological vector
a microorganism capable of causing disease is called a: pathogen
a flora found in the same location as the resident flora, but which remains only for a given amount of time, is called a: transient flora
the symbolic relationship in which one of the organisms benefits and the other is not harmed or helped is referred to as: commensalism
infections that may result from the use of catheters are classified as: Iatrogenic infections
likely to be the most frequently used portal of entry: respiratory tract
not considered a vehicle transmission: droplet
a disease that is generally present in a given population is: endemic
when a pathogen spreads from the original site to other tissues or organs it is called: focal infection
bacterial endotoxins are: components of the gram-negative cell wall
the human body containing normal flora: urethra, vagina, and mouth
the presence of microbes in or on the body is a: contamination
the mold that produces penicillin is an example of: amensalism
symbiosis that benefits both members: mutualism
Describe how microbes of a normal flora in the human body can become opportunistic pathogens. Normal flora can become opportunistic pathogens if conditions suppress the immune system, there are changes in the balance of the normal flora, the normal flora enter into an area of the body they normally don’t inhabit.
Describe the three basic approaches used by epidemiologists to study the dynamics of a disease in a population. Descriptive epidemiology—collecting and tabulating data concerning the disease. Analytical epidemiology—demonstrating cause and effect relationships using data from descriptive epidemiology. Experimental epidemiology—experimental testing of hypotheses r
Discuss Koch's postulates and their limitations. 1. Suspected pathogen must be present in every case of disease and absent in healthy individuals. 2. Must be able to isolate pathogen from diseased host and grow it in pure culture outside of the host. 3. The pathogen from the pure culture must cause th
Describe the necessary steps a microbe must take before it can cause infection and disease. Adhesion to host cells or tissue Colonization within tissues Invasion through the growth and spread of the organism Evasion of host defenses involves the ability to avoid the host immune response.
Discuss health-care associated (nosocomial) infections (HIAs). HAIs are infections acquired as a result of treatment or working in healthcare facilities. These facilities serve sick people who are capable of shedding pathogens. Transmission of pathogens and the development of resistant strains are increasingly becomi
Created by: naponte1