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1st Semester

Masterbooks Intro to A&P Volume 1 & 2

cells the most basic structural and functional unit of a living organism, such as the human body
anatomy the study of the body's parts and how they are put together
physiology the study of how the parts of the body function
organs a group of tissue that has a particular function
digestive system all the parts that process your food - from your mouth and stomach to your liver and intestines
nucleus directs most of the action in the cell
cell membrane forms the cell's outer border
cytoplasm most of the cell's work gets done here
erythrocytes red blood cells; their main job is to carry oxygen
plasma membrane the envelope that contains the other components of the cell
intracellular fluid fluid inside the cells
extracellular fluid fluid that is outside the cells
water soluble something that can be dissolved in water
lipid another name for a fat
hydrophilic a word that literally means "water-loving"
hydrophobic a word that literally means "water-fearing"
exocytosis the process of releasing material from in side the cell
cytosol the liquid found inside the cell
lysosomes small vesicles containing enzymes that can digest many kinds of molecules and debris
nucleus the control center of the cell
messenger RNA copies of the protein-building instructions from the nucleus
mitochondria they generate and store energy
metabolize a controlled way of "burning" the fuel of the body
cytoskeleton composed of a network of tubes and filaments that run throughout the cell
centrioles responsible for helping form a complex of microtubules
mitotic spindle guides the cell's chromosomes during cell division
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) store the genetic instructions needed to make all the proteins in the body
gene each section of DNA that has the information for a particular protein
enzymes perform all the chemical reactions in your cells
antibodies fight infectious invaders in your body
junk DNA once thought to be merely left over from our evolutionary past, though they actually are quite active and serve many functions
interphase the part of the cell cycle when a cell is not actually splitting into two cells
chromatid duplicated chromosomes stuck together during interphase
a pair of sister chromatids a chromosome and its copy, stuck together
mitosis the part of the cell cycle that is directly involved when dividing the cell into two daughter cells
tissue a group of cells that perform similar or related functions
epithelial tissue lines your body cavities or covers surfaces
glandular epithelium this tissue forms the glands of the body
myofilaments muscle cells contain these structures that allow the cells to contract
connective tissue helps provide a framework for the body, and helps connect and support other organs in the body
organ a collection of various types of tissues that work together to perform a function
programmed cell death the process by which some cells are designed to self-destruct
anterior describes structures at the front of the body
posterior describes structures at the back of the body
proximal describes something that is closer to the middle of the body
distal describes something that is farther away from the middle of the body
superior describes something that is above something else
inferior describes something that is below something else
medial describes something that is closer to the midline, or center line, of the body
lateral describes something that is farther away from the midline, or center line, of the body
homeostasis the body has many mechanisms to help maintain a balance or "equilibrium" among its many systems
irreducible complexity many of the body's systems cannot work unless others are already in place and working properly
skeletal system bones and joints
muscular system muscles
cardiovascular system heart and blood vessels
respiratory system nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs
nervous system brain, spinal cord, and nerves
digestive system mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
urinary system kidneys, ureters, and bladder
reproductive system: male testes, genital ducts, and prostate
reproductive system: female ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts
integumentary system skin, nails, and hair
endocrine system pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreas, adrenal glands, testes (male), and ovaries (female)
lymphatic system lymph nodes, lymph vessels, thymus, tonsils, and spleen
bone marrow helps to create red and white blood cells
blood cells help fight bacterial infections
rib cage a protective shield for the heart and lungs and provides a sturdy space into which your lungs expand
hematopoiesis most of our blood cells are formed by this process in the marrow cavities of the many bones of the body
blood cells they die rapidly, many living only for days or months, and need to be replaced
long bones bones that are longer than they are wide
short bones bones about as wide as they are long
flat bones thin bones either long or short, and usually curved
sesamoid bones bones that are small and round
irregular bones bones that cannot easily be placed in the other categories
medullary in the middle
epiphysis the rounded, broader end of a long bone (the joint end(
periosteum the outermost layer of bone, which is a thin, fibrous membrane
compact bone the is beneath the periosteum, and is a dense, thick layer
spongy bone the innermost part of the bone that is like a sponge or a honeycomb
osteo the Greek word for "bone"
osteocyte a mature bone cell
osteoblast an immature cell or a bone-building cell
osteoclasts break down bone
osteon the basic unit of compact bone
circumferential lamellae the outer layer of compact bone that is made up of very large rings of ground substance and osteocytes
trabeculae the struts observed in spongy bones
epiphyseal plate bones grow in this area
chondrocytes these cells are what makes cartilage
human growth hormone (hGH) helps regulate bone growth
rickets a bone disease in children that is the result of a deficiency of vitamin D
calcitonin a hormone released by the thyroid when calcium levels in the body get too high
osteoporosis a disease, primarily of the elderly, that results in bones that are very fragile
arthritis inflammation of one or more joints
osteoarthritis joint cartilage gradually deteriorates, resulting in pain, swelling, and restricted motion in the joints affected
rheumatoid arthritis a person's own immune system attacks the body's own tissues, often the joints of smaller bones
fracture a break in a bone
hematoma a mass of clotted blood
callus a cartilage-like layer of tissue that forms inside a fracture
immobilize keeping the broken pieces of bone from shifting
arthroscope a small telescope for looking into joints
reduction putting fractured bones into alignment
axial skeleton made up of the skull, vertebral column, and ribs
vertebral column protects the spinal cord
appendicular skeleton made up of the upper and lower limbs as well as the bones that connect them to the axial skeleton
pectoral girdle connects the arms to the axial skeleton
pelvic girdle connects the legs to the axial skeleton
flexion a movement that decreases the angle between two parts of the body
extension a movement that increases the angle between two parts of the body
abduction movement away from the midline of the body
adduction movement toward the midline of the body
articulate connected by a joint
sutures the joints that hold the cranial bones together
hyoid bone the only bone not connected to another bone located in the neck between the jawbone and the thyroid gland
complete fracture one where the bone breaks into two or more separate pieces
incomplete fracture one in which the bone is cracked but not broken all the way through
simple fracture one in which the bone is broken but does not break through the skin
compound fracture one in which the fractured bone breaks through the skin
contract when muscles do this, they get smaller or shorter
contractility means muscle tissues can contract with great force
elasticity means that when a muscle is stretched, it has the ability to return to its resting length
excitability means that muscle can respond to a stimulus or trigger
extensibility means that muscle can be stretched
skeletal muscle known as voluntary muscle, contracts on your command, is striated
muscle fiber also known as a muscle cell; can be very long, often extending the entire length of the muscle
myofilaments can be made of myosin molecules or actin molecules
aerobic respiration the process where glucose (sugar) is broken down with oxygen being present
anaerobic respiration the process where glucose (sugar) is broken down without oxygen being present
lactic acid diffuses out of the muscle cells and into the blood to be diposed of
anabolic steroids synthetic male hormones taken to enhance muscle growth and performance
muscle tone refers to the fact that there is some tension in a muscle even when it is not being actively contracted
muscle atrophy muscles that have not been used regularly for weeks get smaller
rigor mortis occurs after death because the muscles all over the body contract and are unable to relax
sarcomere the simplest contractile unit of a muscle
thick myofilaments these are made of myosin
thin myofilaments these are made of actin
mitochondria they convert fuel, like sugars, into usable energy
antagonistic muscles that work opposite each other
intercostal muscles located between the ribs
orbicularis oculi muscle encircles each eye; helps us to blink, wink, and squint
deltoid muscle the round muscle over the cap of the shoulder
rotator cuff the name for the four muscles that hold the humerus in the shoulder joint
trapezius the triangular-shaped muscle in the upper back, helping connect the pectoral girdle to the thorax
pectoralis major muscle the primary muscle of the chest
rectus abdominis this long muscle on the front wall of the abdomen helps keep the pelvis stable as we walk
anterior means "in the front"
posterior means "in the back"
occipitofrontalis the main muscle across our forehead; elevates the eyebrows
orbicularis oris helps you close your mouth
mentalis muscle on the front of the lower jaw; helps wrinkle the chin
buccinator compresses the cheek and helps keep food in place as we chew
gluteus maximus biggest muscle in the body
heart hardest working muscle in the body
achilles strongest tendon in the body
hamstring muscle at the rear of the thigh
supra means "above"
infra means "below"
pericardium this sac goes around the heart
epicardium made mostly of connective tissue and provides a protective covering for the surface of the heart
desmosome helps hold the muscle fibers together as they contract
pulmonary circulation the right-sided circulation
systemic circulation the left-sided circulation
artery vessel that carries blood away from the heart
vein vessel that carries blood toward the heart
atria collects blood as it returns to the heart
pulmonary veins veins that bring blood from the lungs to the left atrium
vena cavae the veins that bring blood back from the brain and the body
tricuspid valve blood passes from the right atrium into the right ventricle through this
bicuspid valve blood passes from the left atrium into the left ventricle through this
mitral used for the bicuspid valve because the two cusps look a little like a bishop's headdress, called a miter
chordae tendineae the ties that bind the cusps to the ventricular walls; this Latin name means "heart strings:
semilunar valves the valves guarding the exit from the ventricles
pulmonary valve the semilunar valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
cardiac cycle the name given to the five steps involved in filling the heart's chambers and pumping the blood
atrial systole after the passive filling of the ventricles, when the atria simultaneously contract
edema swelling caused by fluid accumulating in tissues
pulmonary edema fluid in the lungs
interventricular septum muscular wall between the ventricles
myocardial infarction commonly known as a "heart attack"
myocardial ischemia the situation where adequate oxygen is not delivered to the heart muscle
coronary heart disease a type of cardiovascular disease, a term that includes heart attacks and strokes and other diseases of the heart and blood vessels
autorhythmic cells these repeatedly produce electrical signals that stimulate the heart to contract
cardiac conduction system Also known as instrinsic conduction system; has two "nodes" that set the pace of the heartbeat
SA node a small group of cells located in the upper portion of the right atrium's wall, near the entrance of the superior vena cava; the heart's main pacemaker
Purkinje fibers deliver the electric signals to their final destination; vital for maintaining the heart's smooth, coordinated pumping action
electrocardiogram the recording that is produced from the electrical impulses transmitted through the heart
cardiac output the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute
stroke volume the amount of blood pumped with each heartbeat
echocardiogram an ultrasound of the heart
diastolic volume the amount of blood in the ventricle when it is full
end systolic volume the amount of blood left in the ventricle after it contracts
vascular system a collection of tubes that carry blood away from the heart and then back again
arteries take blood away from the heart
veins carry blood back to the heart
capillaries connect the arteries and veins
arterioles the smallest arteries; they lead to the capillaries
venules the smallest veins; carry blood from the capillaries to the larger veins
endothelium lines all the blood vessels and the heart itself
scurvy a severe vitamin C deficiency
elastic arteries the arteries that are closest to the heart
adrenaline also called epinephrine; increases heart rate
vasoconstriction this is when the smooth muscle contracts and the lumen constricts
abdominal aorta the portion of the aorta below the diaphragm
upper respiratory system consists of nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, larynx
lower respiratory system contains the trachea, tubes of the bronchial tree, lungs
external nares two openings on the nose (nostrils)
bacteriophages bacteria-eating viruses
nasal conchae stick out from the sides of the nasal cavity (turbinates)
sinuses air-filled spaces in the skull surrounding the nasal cavity
pharynx commonly called the throat
nasopharynx superior (upper) portion of the pharynx
Eustachian tubes these drain any excess mucus or other fluid that might collect in the middle ear
larynx commonly called the voice box
thyroid cartilage commonly called the "Adam's apple"
trachea commonly called the windpipe
internal respiration gas exchange between capillaries and the cells and tissues of the body
cellular respiration process by which cells obtain energy from nutrients like glucose
asthma chronic inflammatory disease of the airways
hilum where the bronchi & blood vessels enter the lungs
alveoli tiny sacs that pouch out from the walls of respiratory bronchioles & alveolar ducts
surfactant a special kind of molecule that has some detergent-like properties
pneumonia an inflammatory condition of the lungs, primarily affecting the air sacs
pleura each lung is enclosed by this double-layered membrane
pleurisy occurs when the pleural membranes become inflamed
inspiration the first phase of breathing when air is taken into the lungs
expiration the second phase of breathing when air flows back out of the lungs
diaphragm the large, dome-shaped muscle located below the lungs
tidal volume the amount of air in one breath
inspiratory reserve volume the amount of air taken in beyond the normal tidal volume
vital capacity the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration
hemoglobin protein in the blood that carries oxygen efficiently
erythrocytes red blood cells in the blood & contain hemoglobin
oxyhemoglobin when hemoglobin is bound to one or more oxygen molecules
carbon monoxide a colorless, odorless gas that consists of one carbon atom & one oxygen atom
carbaminohemoglobin when hemoglobin is carrying carbon dioxide
bronchial arteries supply oxygenated blood & nutrients to the lung tissue
ventilation gets air into the lungs; just means "breathing"
accessory muscles used when a deeper or more forceful breath is required


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