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Clinical manifestations of a fracture? Generalized swelling, pain/ tenderness, deformity, diminished functional use of affected limb/ digit, bruising, severe muscular rigidity and crepitus.
Treatment for a fracture? Analgesics. Splinted/ casted. Traction. Surgical intervention.
What is compartment syndrome? Serious complication that results from compression of nerves, blood vessels and muscles inside a closed space.
6 P's to assess extent of injury? 1. Pain 2. Pulselessness 3. Pallor 4. Paresthesia 5. Paralysis 6. Pressure
5 different types of expected findings for clubfoot? 1. Talipes varus- bending inward 2. Talipes valgus- bending outward 3. Talipes calcaneus- toes are higher than heel 4. Talipes equinus- toes lower than heel 5. Talipes equinovarus- toes facing inward and lower than heel
Procedures to correct clubfoot? Castings (series), weekly physical therapy, specialized shoes.
Risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)? Birth order, female gender, family history, breech intrauterine position, delivery type and joint stability.
Clinical manifestations of DDH in infants? Asymmetry of gluteal/ thigh folds, limited hip abduction, shortening of the femur, widened perineum, positive Ortolani test and positive Barlow test
Clinical manifestations of DDH in children? One leg shorter than other, positive Trendelenburg sign, walking on toes on one foot and walking with a limp.
What is osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)? Gentic disorder resulting in bone fractures and deformity along with restricted growth. Most cases- rare autosomal recessive. Defects in COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes.
Treatmeant for OI? Bisphosphonate therapy with IV pamidronate (to promote increased bone density and prevent fractures. Less effective for long bones). Lightweight braces and splints and physical therapy. Surgery to prevent/ correct deformities.
What is scoliosis? Complex deformity of the spine that can also effect the ribs.
Risk factors for scoliosis? Genetic tendency, gender (more common in girls) and age (highest incidence between 8 to 15 years old).
Clinical manifestations of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)? Joint swelling, stiffness, redness and warmth that can be worse in the morning. Mobility limitations, fever, rash, limp in the morning and delay in growth.
Labs associated with JIA? Elevated C-reactive protein. Elevated ESR and WBCs.
Medications to treat JIA? NSAIDs, methotrexate, corticosteroids and etanercept.
Clinical manifestations of lupus? Fever, fatigue, weight loss, "butterfly rash" over bridge of nose, photosensitivity, alopecia, myalgia, headache, seizure, chorea, stroke, peripheral neuropathy, pleuritis, atelectasis, pericarditis, abdonminal pain, nausea, vomiting, colitis, anemia and
Lupus goal of treatment? Balancing medications to avoid exacerbation/ complications while preventing/ minimizing treatment associated morbidity.
Lupus patients must avoid? Exposure to the sun and UVB light.
Clinical manifestations of oseomyelitis? Fever, fussiness/ irritability, fatigue, lethargy, pain, warmth, tenderness, decreased ROM.
Diagnosing oseomyelitis includes...? Organism identification/ antibiotic susceptibility. Cultures of purulent drainage, blood, joint fluid and infected skin samples. Bone biopsy. Labs- ESR, CRP. Radiographic signs. Technetium bone scan. CT and MRI.
Treatment of oseomyelitis? IV antibiotic therapy- nafcillin/ clindamycin. MRSA- vancomycin. Surgery if no response to antibiotic treatment.
Created by: B00514018
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