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Biology 2 Practical

Porifera: sponges are sessile with porous bodies and choanocytes
Parts of the sponge include •Spongocoel = Central cavity of sponge•Osculum= Larger excurrent opening of the spongocoel•Epidermis-Single layer of flattened cells which forms outer surface sponge•
Porocyte= Cells which form pores; possess a hollow channel through the center which extends from the outer surface (incurrent pore) to spongocoel.•
What is the simplest kind of invertebrate? The sponge.
Choanocyte= Collar cell, majority of cells which line the spongocoel; possess a flagellum which is ringed by a collar of fingerlike projections. Flagellar movement moves water and food particles which are trapped on the collar and later phagocytized.•
Mesohyl = The gelatinous layer located between the two layers of the sponge body wall (epidermis and choanocytes).•
Amoebocyte= Wandering, pseudopod bearing cells in the mesohyl; function in food uptake from choanocytes, food digestion, nutrient distribution to othercells, formation of skeletal fibers, gamete formation•
Spicule= Sharp, calcium carbonate or silica structures in the mesohyl which form the skeletal fibers of many sponges
What is a sponge shaped like? It is shaped like a sac with an opening at the top.
Spongin Flexible proteinaceous skeletal fibers in the mesohyl of some sponges
The first air-breathing land animals were: arthropods
How many layers is a sponge's body made of? 2 cell layers.
Where do sponges live? Sponges live in water, attached to sand or rocks.
.Sponges possess extensive regeneration abilities for repair and asexual reproduction.
Cnidaria: Cnidarians have radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, and cnidocytes
The cnidaria contains hydras, jellyfish, sea anemones and coral animals.
Some characteristics of cnidarians include :•Radial symmetry•Diploblastic•Simple, sac-like body
There are two possible cnidarian body plans sessile polyp and motile floating medusa.
Some species of cnidarians exist only as polyps some only as medusae and others are dimorphic (both polyp and medusa stages in their life cycles).
What do sponges lack? They lack Systems so no muscles, no nerves and no organs for digestion or circulation
Polyp= Cylindrical form which adheres to the substratum by the aboral end of the body stalk and extends tentacles around the oral end to contact prey Cyanea capillataarctica→ largest, "Lion's Mane Jellyfish" or Arctic Jellyfish.
Medusa= Flattened, oral opening faces down, bell-shaped form; moves freely in water by passive drifting and weak bell contractions; tentacles
Cnidarians are carnivorous.•
How is Arthropods body supported? There body is supported by small needles called 'spicules' made by archeocytes
Tentacles are armed with stinging cells called cnidocytes—after which the Cnidaria are named.
Cnidocytes Specialized cells of cnidarian epidermis that contain eversible capsule-like organelles, or cnidae, used in defense and capture of prey.
Nematocysts are stinging capsules.
The simplest forms of muscles and nerves occur in Cnidaria
What is an osculum? The internal cavity with an upper hole that water exits the sponge.
Epidermal and gastro dermal cells have bundles of microfilaments arranged into contractile fibers.
What do ribbon worms and flatworms have in common? They are acoelomates.
The gastrovascular cavity when filled with water, acts as a ,hydrostatic skeleton against which the contractile fibers can work to change the animal's shape.•
A simple nerve net coordinates movement and no brain is present. Associated with sensory receptors
The __________ gives rise to muscles, bones, and the circulatory system. mesoderm
How do porifera feed? By choanocytes generating a current with flagella, filtering water and capturing food particles to make a food vacuole.
The lining of the digestive tube is formed from: endoderm
All cnidarians that have a medusa belong to the clade Medusozoa, including the hydrozoans, scyphozoans (jellyfish) andcubozoans (box jellies).
.Hydrozoa Most hydrozoans alternate polyp and medusa forms in the life cycle although the polyp is the dominant stage. Some are colonial (e.g., Obelia, Physalia (Portuguese Man-O-War)), while others are solitary (e.g., Hydra)
Diploblastic animals, such as cnidarians and __________, have only two germ layers, ectoderm and __________. ctenophores; endoderm
Hydra is unique in that only the polyp stage is present.
How do sponges reproduce? They can reproduce sexually or asexually (fragmentation or budding)
Freshwater, polyp only and solitary Hydra
Scyphozoa The planktonic medusa (jellyfish) is the most prominent stage of the life cycle.•Coastal species usually pass through a small polyp stage during the life cycle.•Open ocean species have eliminated the polyp entirely.
Sponge larvae: are flagellated and able to swim
Cubozoa comprise 20 described species
The head end of an animal is termed its: anterior end
The box jellies have a spherical shaped with squared off edges, hence their name•
Where do most molluscs live? Most live in water, snails and slugs live on land.
Chironex fleckeri(sea wasp) has been called the deadliest jellyfish in the world
Most representatives of the phylum Porifera gain nutrition as: suspension feeders
Anthozoa This group contains sea anemones and coral animals.They only occur as polyps.
Hox genes have been identified in: both bilaterally symmetric and radially symmetric animals only
Coral animals may be solitary or colonial and secrete external skeletons of calcium carbonate.•
Within the phylum Cnidaria, corals are most closely related to: sea anemones
What do molluscs look like? They have a soft body and have a mantle that secretes a shell or mucous layer for protection
Coral is the rock-like external skeletons.
In cnidarians, nematocysts are housed in specialized cells called: cnidocytes
Ctenophora: combjellies possess rows of ciliary plates and adhesive colloblasts This clade contains the comb jellies. There are about 100 species, all of which are marine.
A __________ plane divides the animal body into dorsal and ventral parts. frontal
Sea Walnut aka Comb Jelly Cestum(Venus' Girdle)
Give some examples of molluscs. Squids
Among the scyphozoans, the __________ stage is reduced or absent. polyp
Although corals can capture prey, they also depend on __________ for nutrition. a symbiotic relationship with the photosynthetic zooxanthellae
The presence of a lophophore in all three groups (Bryozoans brachiopods, phoronids) ,suggested a relationship among these clades, but it is now clear that they are not one another's closest relatives.
Molluscs have a foot of tentacles. True or False? True.
.Ectoprocta (Bryozoans) This contains the moss animals. There are about 4500 species which are mostly marine and are widespread.
Which statement best describes a lophophore? It is a ciliated ring of tentacles surrounding the mouth
Ectoprocta are small, colonial forms.•In most, the colony is enclosed within a hard exoskeleton and the lophophores are extended through pores when feeding.•Some are important reef builders.
Phoronids This clade contains about 20 species of tube-dwelling marine worms.•Length from 1 mm to 50 cm•Phoronids live buried in sand in chitinous tubes with the lophophore extended from the tube when feeding.
The nervous system of many species of flatworms: is a "ladder-type."
What clade contains the lamp shells? Brachiopoda
-There are approximately 335 extant species, all marine.• More than 30,000 fossil species of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic have been identified.
How developed are molluscs' organs? Highly developed.
Free-living flatworms belong to the class: Turbellaria
The body of a brachiopod is enclosed by dorsal and ventral shell halves.
Attach to the substratum by a stalk
Sessile attach
Spongilla freshwater sponge, nique adaptations for freshwater
How is a pseudocoelom different from a coelom? A coelom is a cavity fully lined by mesoderm.
Euplectella Venus flower basket
How do molluscs breathe? Through lungs (terrestrial) or gills (aquatic)
Hermaphrodite (monoecious) an organism that has both male and female reproductive organs
Dioecious separate sexes
Amphiblastula Free-swimming larval stage of sponge
Diploblastic Having two germ layers.
What are the parts of the molluscs' body? The mantle, the visceral mass and the muscular foot that may be modified into tentacles.
Triploblastic 3 germ layers
complete digestive system animal has mouth and anus; food travels one way
Metridium sea anemone
Hermatypic corals reef building corals
bioluminescent able to emit light
Plumatella Freshwater Bryozoan
Trochophore larvae Mollusca and Annelida
Annelids have a segmented body.
Critical to polychaete and oligochaete locomotion are: setae.
How do cnidarian catch their prey? By stinging them with stinging tentacles called nematocysts.
Segmentation is important in annelids as an aid in: movement.
Hermaphroditic earthworms reproduce sexually by connecting their bodies by their __________. This allows transfer of __________ from one worm to the other. clitellum; sperm
Animals with a crown of cilia that look like a spinning wheel are the: rotifers
__________ are parasites that infect humans and, as adults, reside in the small intestines of the host. Ascarid worms
One of the disadvantages of exoskeletons in arthropods is that: they must be shed when the animal grows.
The __________ are very common arthropod Paleozoic fossils, and are extinct today. trilobites
An elongate uniramid with many legs as well as poison claws is called: a centipede
An arthropod with chelicerae, pedipalps, and silk glands would be: a spider
Cnidarians have 2 body forms. What are they? Swimming medusa (umbrella shaped, floating freely) and sessile polyps (a bag shape fixed to the ground)
As adults, __________ are sessile crustaceans barnacles
Which of the following arthropod groups is almost exclusively aquatic in habitat? Crustacea
What do cnidarian mouths have? Tentacles with stinging cells and a gastrovascular cavity.
What are animals that feed on things in the bottom of the ocean floor Deposit Feeders. ex Sea Cucumbers
Sea cucumbers will ____ when environmental conditions deteriorate. eject their digestive tract, respiratory structures, and gonads
Describe Characteristics of organisms belonging to Phylum Annelida (Annulus - Segmented) * 3 cell layer
* Segmented tubular body
Closed Circulatory system
Five pairs of hearts
Earthworm very few bristles
Bristle - many bristles
Leech - no bristles
Bilateral symmetry a body plan in which a single imaginary line can divide the body into left and right sides that are mirror images of each other
Give examples of roundworms. Hookworms and Ascaris.
How many layers do the bodies of annelids have? Bodies have 3 layers and are divided into segments.
Give examples of annelids. Earthworms, Leeches and Marine worms.
Medusa A free-swimming cnidarian with a bell-shaped body and tentacles that reproduces sexually.
Describe Characteristics of organisms belonging to Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) * 3 cell layers: endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm
* Some free living
* Some parasitic
Bilateral symmetry
What is another name for Flatworms? Platyhelminthes.
Give another name for roundworms. Nematodes.
Phylum Porifera (characteristics) * Sessile
* Filter feeders
* Two Speciallized types of cells
* Cells able to re-organize if cut apart
What are annelids? Segmented worms.
Phylum Cnidaria (Characteristics) * 2 cell layers thick
* Stinging cells, nematocysts
* 2 Body Types
Polyp - sessile
Medusa - motile
Give 3 examples of flatworms. tapeworms, flukes and planarians.
Where do annelids live? They only live on land and don't live inside an animals body.
Phylum Annelida (Examples) Leeches
Marine - Bristle worms
What is an annelid nervous system like? It is a simple nervous system.
Sea stars eat: mostly crustaceans and mollusks.
Phylum Nematoda (Examples) Roundworms - Ascaris, Filaria, Trichina
Asymmetrical a body plan that is Irregular in shape
Describe Characteristics of organisms belonging to Phylum Nematoda (Roundworms) * Mouth to Anus, open Digestive System
* 3 cell layers
* some free living
* Some parasitic
Can throw up their guts Evisceration
Phylum Platyhelminthes (Examples) Flatworms
Polyp It is sessile, non moving, phase of Cnidarians.
Radial symmetry a body plan that can be divided into pie shaped sections around a line
Describe Characteristics of organisms belonging to Phylum Mollusca (Soft-Bodied) * 3 part body, gut, foot, mantle
* Some sessile
* Some motile
* Very good sense organs
* Some very intelligent squid
Phylum Cnidaria (Examples) Hydra
Where do flatworms live? Some live as parasites in the bodies of other animals, and others live in wet environments.
What do roundworms look like? They are cylindrical and have thin bodies with pointed ends.
Lancelets are: filter feeders
Phylum Porifera (Examples) Sponges
Nematocysts Stinging cells on tentacles
Name 3 Classes in Phylum Mollusca C. Bivalve - clams, oysters, scollops
C. Gastropoda - snails, slugs
C. Cephalopoda - octopus, squid
Sea stars are primarily carnivores
How do arthropods reproduce? They reproduce sexually.
How do arthropods breathe? They breathe by gills (aquatic) or by spiracles with tracheal tubes (terrestrial) or by book lungs (terrestrial)
Ribbon worms have a unique __________ that is used to capture prey. proboscis
Describe Arthropods' bodies. They have jointed legs and a body that is divided into sections.
What covers echinoderms? A thin skin.
What do flatworms look like? They have flat bodies, head and a tail.
What are the three major groups (classes) of Arthropods? Insects
Urochordates are odd chordates, as typically only the ____ show(s) the basic chordate characteristics. larva
Deuterostomes are characterized by ____ and ____ cleavage radial; indeterminate
Give 4 examples of echinoderms. Starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber, brittle star.
Tunicates are ____ in the phylum ____. urochordates; Chordata
A closed circulatory system is found in the: Cephalopoda
What is one identifying feature of an echinoderm? They have a five way (penta-radial) symmetry.
Echinoderms are unique because: their larvae are bilaterally symmetrical while the adult is pentaradially symmetrical.
The most unique feature of the echinoderms is their: water vascular system
Adult tunicates resemble ____and are ____. sponges, filter feeders
What is the largest group of invertebrate? Arthropods
Members of the class Bivalvia: have a mantle that may form pearls
Tapeworm(s): bodies consist of hundreds of reproductive segments.
All echinoderms are found in marine habitats.
Deuterostomes evolved during the Proterozoic
Give 3 examples of crustaceans. Shrimp, lobster and crab.
How do Echinoderms reproduce? Sexually or by fragmentation.
Class ____ includes mostly extinct species and a few current species such as feather stars and sea lilies. Crinoidea
Clams and oysters are: filter feeders
What are echinoderms skeletons made of? Hard plates often with spines.
One characteristic of the class Holothuroidea is that they: have a reduced endoskeleton consisting of microscopic plates embedded in the body wall.
Which class of echinoderms has the greatest species diversity? Ophiuroidea
How many segments is the body of arthropods divided into? 3 - The head, the thorax/cephalothorax and abdomen.
Catenulida Chain worms that reproduce asexually by budding
Freshwater habitat
Rhabditophora All remaining (besides Catenulids) free living and parasitic flatworms
Schistosomiasis infestation with Schistosoma flukes
Ectoparasites Parasites that feed on external surface of host.
endoparasite parasite living on the inside of its host
opisthaptor posterior attachment organ
Monogenea group of parasitic flatworm flukes that have only one host during the life cycle
Rotifers tiny animals that inhabit fresh water, the ocean, and damp soil
Nemertea proboscis worms or ribbon worms; lack a true ceolom but they have an alimentary cannal
Complete D.S.
Closed circulatory system
Errantia mobile marine free-living worms
Ex. Nereis
Sedentaria sessile, benthic, tube-dwelling polycheates with specialization of segments
Ex. Lumbricus
Gastropoda snails and slugs
Most are herbivorous
Ex. Pulmonate snails, Conus-Cone Snail, venomous
Bivalvia The class of the phylum Mollusca that includes clams, oysters, and mussels.
Ex. Tridacna gigas
Cephalopoda (Mollusca) These have a muscular foot, a shell created by a mantle, and a visceral mass to contain organs. They can also change color
EX: Nautilis, squid, octopus
Ex. Loligo (Common Atlantic Squid)
Giant Squid - Architeuthis dux
Colossal Squid- Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni
Ecdysozoans A major lineage of protostomes (Ecdysozoam) that grow by shedding their external skeletons (molting) and expanding their bodies. Includes arthropods, insects, crustaceans, nematodes, and centipedes.
Necator americanus hookworm; iron deficiency anemia
Ascaris lumbricoides roundworm
Enterobis vermiculoris Pinworm
Myriapoda centipedes and millipedes
Pancrustaceans lobsters and other crustaceans, as well as insects and their relatives
Hexapoda insects
Crustaceans Any of various predominantly aquatic arthropods of the class Crustacea, including lobsters, crabs, shrimps, and barnacles, characteristically having a segmented body, a chitinous exoskeleton, and paired, jointed limbs.
Barnacles Sessile crustaceans that have a shell and are anchored to submerged surfaces.
Copepods any of a group of small crustaceans that are important members of marine and freshwater plankton communities
Isopods A member of one of the largest groups of crustaceans, which includes terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species. Among the terrestrial isopods are the pill bugs, or wood lice.
Echinodermata radially symmetrical marine invertebrates including e.g. starfish and sea urchins and sea cucumbers
Asteroidea sea stars
Ex. Asterias- Common Starfish
Papulae skin gills
pentamerous divided into five parts
Autotomy the ability of an organism to drop a body part and, usually, to regenerate a new one
Ophiuroidea brittle stars
Echinoidea class of sea urchins and sand dollars
Lack arms
Radial symmetry
Aristotle Lantern
Crinoidea sea lilies and feather stars
Most are sessile
Holothuroidea sea cucumbers
Deposit feeders
Lack spines
Respiratory tree
Tube feet around mouth
Evisceration The displacement of organs outside of the body.
deposit feeders swallow organic-rich sediments and other types of deposited material
Parazoa no true tissues (sponges)
beside animals
Eumetazoa animals with true tissues
True Coelom is derived from the mesoderm
Pseudocoelomate false body cavity
monophyletic ALL descendants came from one common ancestor
Protosome an organism who's blastopore forms the mouth (worms, arthopods, and mollusks)
Spiral and determinate cleavage
Blastomeres fate determined
Partially developed embryo
Split and form coelom
Deuterostomes blastopore becomes anus
mouth second
radial and indeterminate cleavage
Blastomere fate not determined
Entire embryo
Folds of archenteron form coelom
All animal belong to what? Metazoa
Lophotrochozoa clade of protostomes that exhibit a trochophore larvae stage or a lophophore feeding structure
Cephalization concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal's body
Gemmules clusters of amoebocytes encased in protective coats
Grantia Porifera
Grantia spicules Phylum Porifera
Commercial bath sponge
Prepared slip of a commercial sponge
Aurelia ephyra
Aurelia planula
Aurelia scyphistoma
Aurelia strobila
Hydra budding In hydra, a bud develops as an outgrowth due to repeated cell division at one specific site.
Obelia hydroid colony
Obelia medusa
Physalia (Portuguese Man of War)
Brown Planaria
Clonorchis sinensis human liver fluke
Fasciola hepatica sheep liver fluke
Rediae and Cercariae
Taenia pisiformis
Hirudo verbana
Lumbricus (earthworm)
earthworm dissection crop, gizzard, aerotic arches (hearts), setae (hairs for movement), ganglia
Conus shell
mussel dissection
Nautilus shell
Loligo Dissection
Turbatrix aceti (vinegar eel)
Ascaris lumbricoides dissection
Enterobius vermicularis pinworm
Trichinella spiralis Trichina worm
Tarantula diagram
Garden spider
Horseshoe crab
Millipede wormlike animal with two pairs of legs on most of its segments
Centipede wormlike animal with one pair of legs on most of its segments
crayfish dissection
Grasshopper dissection
Sea Urchin dissection
sea cucumber dissection
Cynthia (Urochordata)
Molgula (Urochordata)
Branchiostoma Amphioxus
Branchiostoma composite
frog dissection
Created by: bonni462



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