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Neurologic Dysfuncti

Management of Patients with Neurologic Dysfunction

TermDefinition
akinetic mutism unresponsiveness to the environment; the patient makes no movement or sound but sometimes opens the eyes
altered level of consciousness (LOC) when a patient is not oriented, does not follow commands, or needs persistent stimuli to achieve a state of alertness
brain death irreversible loss of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem
coma prolonged state of unconsciousness
craniectomy surgical procedure that involves removal of a portion of the skull
craniotomy surgical procedure that involves entry into the cranial vaul
Cushing's response the brain's attempt to restore blood flow by increasing arterial pressure to overcome the increased intracranial pressure
decerebration an abnormal body posture associated with a severe brain injury, characterized by extreme extension of the upper and lower extremities
decortication an abnormal posture associated with severe brain injury, characterized by abnormal flexion of the upper extremities and extension of the lower extremities
epilepsy at least two unprovoked seizures occurring more than 24 hours apart
herniation abnormal protrusion of tissue through a defect or natural opening
intracranial pressure (ICP) pressure exerted by the volume of the intracranial contents within the cranial vault
locked-in syndrome condition resulting from a lesion in the pons in which the patient lacks all distal motor activity (paralysis) but cognition is intact
migraine a severe, unrelenting headache often accompanied by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances
minimally conscious state a state in which the patient demonstrates awareness but cannot communicate thoughts or feelings
Monro-Kellie hypothesis theory that states due to limited space for expansion within the skull, an increase in any one of the cranial contents: brain tissue, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) causes a change in the volume of the others; aka - Monro-Kellie doctrine
persistent vegetative state condition in which the patient is wakeful but devoid of conscious content, without cognitive or affective mental function
primary headache a headache for which no specific organic cause can be found
secondary headache headache identified as a symptom of another organic disorder (e.g., brain tumor, hypertension)
seizures paroxysmal transient disturbance of the brain resulting from a discharge of abnormal electrical activity
status epilepticus episode in which the patient experiences multiple seizures with no recovery time in between
transsphenoidal surgical approach to the pituitary via the sphenoid sinuses
Created by: DocMorris