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honors Bio Test 10

Microbiology the study of microbes
Extremeophiles def. like to live in extreme environments
Thermacidophiles live in extreme heat
Methanogens live in places with methane gas (ex: swamps)
Haliophiles live in extreme salt places
Eubacteria larger than archebacteria kingdom
Kingdom Eubacteria have may what? pathogens (answer to a question)
Pathogens (Definition) Any organism that causes disease
Uses of bacteria *Used in making food *Sources of medical supplies *Bioremedication
Biomedication "healing" the environment after a natural disaster.
Cynobacteria origanally classified with plants, then protista, and now kingdom eubacteria (Blue-green algae.
Bloom condition the sudden growth of bacteria in large quantities.
Bacterial shapes Coccus, bacillius, and spirillium
Endospore Layers of hard material around the nucleeoid region. Also helps some bacterium survive unfavorable conditions.
Anthrax Used in bio-terrorist attacks, an endospore
Bacterial reproduction Goes through binary fission.and genetic transfer
Binary fission *Not mitosis *Does not form gametes
Conjugation Two cells come together and exchange genetic info.
bacterial nutrician most are heterotrophic. some are autotrophic
Parasitic feed on a living host, Pathogens feed on tissue.
Saphrophytic Feeds on dead, organic matter.
What does bacteria need to grow? Moisture, correct temperature, correct ph, an energy source
Pasturization Process that kills microbes in milk.
Spirochetes corkscrew shaped
Lyme disease caused by a Spirochete, spread by black-legged tic, often causes a red "bullseye" at site of bite, symptoms: Fever, headache, fatigue, and joint pain. If untreated- problems with heart and nervous system.
Who made the first "vaccine" Edward Jenner He developed it for the disease small pox
Small pox *Air born, contact
Iwanowdki worked with tobacco viruses. Discovered viruses
Stanely Won the nobel prize for isolating TMV (a virus)
Parts of viruses *Nucleic acid core *Capsid (protein coat)
Bacteriophage: a virus that infects certain bacteria
viruses are ........ obligate intracellular parasites
Good and bad on viruses Good- many viruses do not affect humans Bad- Once they are in us, its very hard to get them out without destroying the good cells.
Virulence The ability of a pathogen to affect cells
Litic cycle 1. attatchement 2. replication and transcription 3. assembly of more viruses 4. release
lysogenic cycle when a virus remains inactive (latent) for a period of time
Persistent Infection slowly releases virus particles without going through lytic cycle
Natural immunity you have the disease
Artificial immunity vaccines
When are antibiotics useless when used on viruses
When are antibiotics very helpful and useful when used on bacteria
Polio *atacks nervous system *spread by direct or indirect contact
Infectious disease A disease cause by a virus o r organism thet invades the body.
Etiology science of figuring out what the pathogen is
Robert Koch Theorized microscopic organisms in cows
incubation period *The time between infection and the appearence of symptoms *Usually not contagious during this time. (but can be)
Contagious disease a disease that spreads easily to others
Communicable disease a disease that can spread by direct or indirect contact
Tuberculosis bacterial infection
Exotoxin releases toxin to the outside of the pathogen
Endotoxin Remains inside the pathogen
Vector Insect or other arthropod causes disease
Immune carrier have the pathogen but do not have the symptoms
Typhoid spread by contamination
Structural defenses skin and mucous membranes, acids in stomach, tear glands
Lysozyme an enzyme that breaks down the cell wall of bacteria
Lysis Bursting of the host cell
Nonspecific defenses to disease Fever, Inflimation
Bactericidal kills bacteria
Bacteriostatic stunts growth
Sir Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin
Created by: Ash1904