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Genetics

Vocabulary for Genetics and Evolution Units

QuestionAnswer
allele Any of a set of possible forms of a gene.
chromosome in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein
heredity the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
dominant trait he trait observed in the first generation when parents that have different traits are bred This trait masks or covers the recessive trait
recessive trait a trait that is apparent only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited
gene one set of instructions for an inherited trait
phenotype an organism’s appearance or other detectable characteristic. What you can actually see!
genotype the genetic constitution of an organism. What is actually on the DNA.
pedigree a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
Heterozygous having two different alleles of a particular gene or genes. These are written with a Capital and lower case letter for example (Tt)
Homozygous having two identical alleles of a particular gene or genes. They can be dominant or recessive. They are written a either two capital letters (Dominant form TT) or two lower case letter (recessive form tt)
Punett Square is a square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
Gergor Mendel Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics
Purebreed A purebred refers to offspring resulting from a true breeding. True breeding is a way to produce offspring that would carry the same phenotype as the parents.
Hybrid offspring of parents that differ in genetically determined traits. They are heterozygous for their traits.
Evolution Biological evolution is a change in hereditary characteristics of groups of organisms over the course of generations.
theory of evolution A theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modification in successive generations.
adaptation a characteristic that improves an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
natural selection the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do; a theory to explain the mechanism of evolution
selective breeding/artificial selection he human practice of breeding animals or plants that have certain desired characteristics
Clone are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every single bit of their DNA is identical
Genetic Engineering also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
extinction The complete elimination of a species from the earth.
mutation a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule
Overproduction in biology, means that each generation has more offspring than can be supported by the environment
Variation measure of the genetic differences that exist within a population.
Selection forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of their kind,
Created by: kgreen4