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Reproduction and Gen

Reproduction and Genetics for the 7th grade.

TermDefinition
Asexual Reproduction (of reproduction) Not involving the fusion of gametes.
Sexual Reproduction The production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes).
Fertillization The action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
Trait A distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person.
Gene (in technical use) a distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule which a cell (or virus) may synthesize.
Inheritance The process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to characteristics of its parent cell or organism.
Allele An allele is one of the possible forms of a gene.
Heredity Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring.
Dominant Allele An allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different.
Recessive Allele An allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical.
Probability Probability is used to measure the chances or likelihood of an event to occur, a hypothesis being correct, or a scientific prediction being true.
Genotype The genotype determines the hereditary potentials and limitations of an individual from embryonic formation through adulthood.
Phenotype Phenotype, all the observable characteristics of an organism that result from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Chromosomes A structure in all living cells that consists of a single molecule of DNA bonded to various proteins and that carries the genes determining heredity.
Cell Cycle The cell cycle is a cycle of stages that cells pass through to allow them to divide and produce new cells.
Pedigree A pedigree is a diagram that depicts the biological relationships between an organism and its ancestors.
Meosis In biology, meiosis is the process by which one diploid eukaryotic cell divides to generate four haploid cells often called gametes.
Chromatids each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.
Mitosis In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
DNA DNA is a double helix, while RNA is a single helix.
Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is a process of creating protein molecules.
Messenger Rna Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Tranfer Rna Transfer ribonucleic acid is a type of RNA molecule that helps decode a messenger RNA sequence into a protein.
Genetic Selection Genetic selection is the process by which certain traits become more prevalent in a species than other traits.
Genetic Engineering The deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material.
Gene Therapy Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease.
Clone A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same cell.
Genome The haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism, or in each cell of a multicellular organism.
Created by: Julian Mcke