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Digestive System

Digestive System basics

TermDefinition
Digestive system breaks down food into nutrients usable by cells
ingestion take in
digestion break down
absorption take in, move into the body
elimination removal
mechanical digestion physical breakdown of food (chewing, churning)
chemical digestion proteins called enzymes break down food into a different form
enzymes proteins that help digestion
examples of 2 types of digestion in the mouth mechanical digestion (chewing), chemical digestion (saliva)
saliva breaks down carbohydrates with the enzyme Amylase
amylase protein enzyme in saliva that breaks down carbs
esophagus food tube: connects mouth & stomach
peristalsis muscles of the esophagus contract and move food toward the stomach
examples of 2 types of digestion in the stomach mechanical digestion (muscles squeezing & churning), chemical digestion (gastric acid and the enzyme pepsin)
pepsin protein enzyme in the stomach that breaks down proteins
mucus protects the inner layer of the stomach
chyme what food is called when it leaves the stomach
small intestine most digestion occurs here
villi bumps (finger-like projections) that give more surface area for digested food to be absorbed into the body
liver produces bile that breaks down lipids (fats) and filters blood
gallbladder stores bile that gets released into the small intestine
secrete give off /released
pancreas releases protein enzymes insulin and glucagon into small intestine
insulin & glucagon enzymes secreted into small intestine to regulate (control) blood sugar levels
large intestine absorbs water from undigested material
colon another name for large intestine
rectum end of the large intestine
anus muscular opening for removal of feces
feces solid waste, end product of the digestive process
Created by: pmrocks