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SLS Bio 12 PS - GN

SLS Bio 12 Protein Synthesis - GN

QuestionAnswer
Angiogenesis the process in which new blood vessels form. Relates to cancer because they produce new blood vessels to feed the cancer (tumor). It can also be used as transport for the cancer cells.
anticodon the code of tRNA (transfer RNA) that is complementary to the code of mRNA (codon). this code form the mRNA determines what amino acid is required and the tRNA matches with it.
apoptosis programmed cell death that lysosomes are usually responsible for.
benign cancer benign cancer does not spread and invade neighbouring tissue, organs ETC unlike malignant cancer.
cancer are tumors that spread (usually) and grow throughout the body because of a mutation in the code that prevents a cell from replicating.
carcinogen a substance that causes cancer. radiation, chemicals (tobacco), ETC. most carcinogens are mutagens but not all.
codon a group of three nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid. read by tRNA that brings in the amino acid. Present on mRNA where thymine is replaced by Uracil.
contact inhibition contact inhibition lets non cancer cells cease growth when ever they contact each-other. this creates an even line of cells. When a cancer is malignant contact inhibition does not apply.
DNA sequence The sequence of bases (nucleotides) that codes for your genetic information
elongation the process in transformation where a polypeptide chain (protein) is formed by the tRNA bringing in specific amino acids to correspond with the codons of the mRNA
environmental mutagen Environmental mutagens are when carcinogens from the environment cause a mutation. physical and chemical agents from the environment
genetic disorder a disorder that is formed due to abnormalities in DNA (mutation) that affect a chromosome or DNA strand changing genotypes and resulting in an abnormal trait.
initiation the process where mRNA enter rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and the codon of AUG (methionine) starts the process of elongation.
malignant cancer A cancer that can spread to nearby cells, organs, through blood vessels and lymph.
messenger RNA (mRNA) mRNA is built in the nucleus in transcription where a single strand pairs and copies DNA's genetic information (difference: U replaces T). This then gets carried out into the cytoplasm to make proteins in the transformation process.
metastasis the spread of cancer through out the body by malignant cancer. travels through blood vessels and lymph system.
mutagen a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that alters genetic code. a mutagen creates mutations.
mutation a change in DNA that can result from carcinogens or be passed down through the family ( hereditary).
oncogenes a proto-oncogenes that helps the cell grow and divide while preventing the cell from committing apoptosis. When a mutation occurs to a proto-oncogene, the cell will divide more, signalling pathway = always active and apoptosis never occurs).
termination in transformation, at the end of the mRNA chain there is a stop codon. once the tRNA reads that it does not bring any more amino acids.
transcription the action of mRNA copying DNA genetic information. RNA polymerase binds complementary RNA nucleotides to DNA. after this, the Introns separate form the mRNA and stay inside the nucleus while exons remain and leave into the cytoplasm for transcription.
transfer RNA (tRNA) RNA that transports the individual amino acids to the mRNA inside the rRNA. the tRNA matches its anticodons with the codons of the mRNA and they build a protein by repeating this. tRNAs all carry their specific amino acid depending on their anticodon.
translation The process involving mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA that creates proteins
tumor suppression also know as anti-oncogene, it regulates cell during cell division so they will not become tumors. If a mutation occurs in the tumor suppressors, it can not regulate cell division so cancer will result.
Created by: Graeme.N