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Mental Health 2

The Schizophrenias Part 1

The total duration of this psychotic disorder has a duration of at least 1 month but less than 6 months, and impaired social or occupational functioning during some part of the illness may not be apparent. schizophreniform disorder
This psychotic disorder is characerized by a sudden onset of psychoic symptoms or grossly disorganized catatonic behavior. Brief psychotic disorder
This pyschotic episode lasts at least 1 day but less than 1 month. brief psychotic disorder
These types of psychotic disorders are often precipitated by extremely stressful life events. brief psychotic disorder
This psychotic disorder is characterized by an uninterrupte dperiod of illness during which time there is a major depressie, manic, or mixed episode, concurrent with symptoms that meed the criteria for schizophrenia. schizophrenia disorder
In order for a patient to be diagnosed with schizophrenia disorder, the symptoms must not be due to any substance use or abuse or to a medical condition
This psychotic disorder involves nonbizarre delusions of at least 1 month duration. delusional disorder
Situations that occur in real life such as being follwoed, infected, loved at a distance, deceived by a spouse, or having a disease. nonbizarre delusions
If a patient has this psychotic disorder, they are not markedly impaired, nor is the person's behavior obviously odd or bizarre. delusional disorder
Common types of delusions seen in delusional disorder are: delusions of grandeur, persecution, or jealousy, somatic delusions, and mixed delusions
This type of psychotic disorder is a condition in which one individual who is in a close relationship with another individual who has a psychotic disorder with a delusion eventually comes to share the delusional beliefs either in total or in part. shared psychotic disorder (folie a deux)
This type of psychotic disorder is a cult phenomenon. shared psychotic disorder (folie a deux)
This type of psychotic disorder is induced by substances or caused by the physiological consequences of a general medical condition. induced or secondary psychosis
These must always be ruled out before a diagnosis of schizophrena or other psychotic disorder can be made. medical conditions and substance of abuse
This term refers to delusions, any prominent hallucinations, disorganized speech, or disorganized catatonic behavior. psychotic
______ in schizophrenia is linked with male gender, more pronounced psychotic symptoms, nonadherence with medication regimen, and poor prognosis. substance abuse
These type of symptoms occur frequently in schizophrenia. depressive
The leading cause of death in patients with schizophrenia is suicide
Suicides in individuals with schizophrenia usually occur during periods of _______ after 5-10 years of illness. remission
The rate of comorbid anxiety disorders in individuals with schizophrenia has been found to be ________ than the rate of anxiety disorders in the general population. higher
The compulsive drinking of 4 to 10 L of water a day. psychosis-induced polydipsia
The ______ theory of schizophrenia is derived from the study of the adtion of the antipsychotic drugs that block the activity of _______. dopamine; dopamine
These drugs can exacerbate the symptoms of schizophrenia. Amphetamines, cocaine, methylphenidate (ritalin), levodopa.
It is believe that _______ may play a role in causing the symptoms of schizophrenia along with dopamine. serotonin
Phencyclidine piperidine (PCP) induces a state that closely resembles schizophrenia
Abnormal maturation of the CNS is thought to be a central factor in the developmen to of schizophrenia
Schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like symptoms occure at an ______ rate in relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. increased
Postmortum studies persormed on the brains of individuals who had schizophrenia revealed reduced volume of gray matter, especially in the temporal and frontal lobes
Infants for whom there is a HX of pregnancy or birth complications are at increased risk for developing ________ as adults. schizophrenia
Developmental and family stress as well as social, psychological, and physical stress are all identified as playing a significant role in the _______ and course of schizophrenia and in the person's quality of life. severity
The fundamental signs of schizophrenia are referred to as the four A's
What are the four A's affect, associative looseness, autism, ambivalence
This refers to the outward manifestiation of a person's feelings and emotions. affect
In schizophrenia, clients may display what type of an affect? flat, blunted, inappropriate, or bizarre
This refers to haphazard and confused thinking that is manifested in jumbled and illocgical speech and reasoning. associative looseness
Associative looseness is also called looseness of association
This refers to thinking that is not bound to reality but reflects the private perceptual world of the individual. autism
Delusions, hallucinations, and neologisms are examples of what kind of thinking in a person with schizophrenia? autistic thinking
This refers to simultaneoulsy holding two opposing emotions, attitudes, ideas, or wishes toward the same person, situation, or object. ambivalence
This type of ambivalence is paralyzing because the person continuously vacillates between opposing positions. pathological ambivalence
What are the subtypes of schizophrenia? paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, undifferentiated, and residual
Under the criteria for schizophrenia, there must be two or more of the what symptoms during a 1 month period? Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms such as affective flattening.
If delusions bizarre or auditory hallucinations and 2 or more boices converse with each other or voices give a running commentary then ______ criterion is needed. only one
Continuous signs of schizophrenia persist for at least ______ with at least 1 month that meets criteria of the active phase adn may include prodromal or residual symptoms. 6 months
With each relapse of psychosis, there is an increase in residual dysfunction and deterioration
What are the phases in the course of schizophrenia? Acute phase, maintenance phase, and stabilization phase.
During this phase of schizophrenia, there are periods of florid positive symptoms as well as negative symptoms. acute phase
Examples of florid positive symptoms of schizophrenia would be: hallucinations and delusions
Examples of negative symptoms of schizophrenia would be apathy, withdrawal, lack of motivation
This is the phase of schizophrenia when acute symptoms decrease in severity. maintenance phase
This phase of schizophrenia is the period in which symptoms are in remission, although there might be some milder persistent symptoms. stabilization phase
What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia? Hallucinations, delusions, bizzare behavior, and disorganized speech.
What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia? Blunted affect (flattened), alogia, avolition, and anhedonia.
The inability to experience pleaseure or joy demonstrated by few recreational interests or activities, litle sexual interest or activity, impaired intimacy and closeness, and few relationships with friends or peers. anhedonia
The loss of motivation, demonstrated by impaired grooming and hygiene, lack of persistence at work or school, and physical anergia. avolition
Poverty of thought, such as poverty of speech, poverty of content of speech and blocking. alogia
A delay in diagnosis and treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia allows the _________ ______ to become more entrenched. psychotic process
_________ aymptoms may appear a month to a year before the first psychotic break. prodromal
These symptoms represent a clear deterioration in previous functioning. prodromal symptoms
Many persons diagnosed with schizophrenia have revealed that during adolescence they were withdrawn from others, depressed, and expressed vague or unrealistic plans regarding the future.
In the early phase of schizophrenia what kind of complaints are common? acute or chronic anxiety; phobias; obsessions; compulsions
A person in the early phase of schizophrenia may exhibit what type of features? dissociative
As schizophrenia develops, strong feelings of _________, lack of self-respect, __________, and hopelessness begin to emerge. rejection, loneliness
Early in the disease of schizophrenia, the person may be preoccupied with relidion, matters of mysitcism, or metaphysical causes of creation.
People who have been ill with schizophrenia for a long time often have speech patterns that are ___________, rambling and devoid of meaning to the casual observer (looseness of association) incoherent
Patients whose prepsychotic personalities show good social, sexual, and occupational functioning have a greater chance for a good remissionor a complete recovery
A slow incidious onset over a period of 2-3 years is not as _______ a prognostic sign. favorable
What are the treatment relevant dimensions of schizophreniia? positive, negative, cognitive, and depress and other mood symptom dimensions
The ______ symptoms of schizophrenia are the ones that capture our attention. positive symptoms
The positive symptoms are also known as florid psychotic symptoms
The ________ symptoms of schizophrenia persist and seem the most destructive because they render the person inert and unmotivated. negative
These symptoms are associated with an acute onset, normal premorbid functioning, normal social functioning during remissions, normal CT findings, normal neuropsychological test results and a favorable response to antipsychotic medications. positive symptoms
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia occur early in the first stage of the illness and often precipitate hospitalization.
False fixed beliefs that cannot be corrected byt reasoning. delusions
In schizophrenia, delucions are often _______ _________ and may be _______. loosely organized; bizarre
Most commonly, ________ thinking involves the following themes ideas of reference, persecution, grandiosity, somatic sensations, jealousy, control.
Misconstruing trivial events and remarks and giving them personal significance is considered what type of delusion? Ideas of Reference
The false belief that one is being singled out for harm by others; this belief often takes the form of a plot by people in power against the person. What type of delusion is this? Persecution
Th false belief that on is a very powerful and important person. What type of delusion is this? grandeur
the false belief that the body is changing in an unusual way. What type of delusion is this? somatic delusions
The false belief that one's mate is unfaithful; they may have so called proof. What type of delusion is this? jealousy
When Maria saw the doctor and nurse talking she thought they were talking about her, what type of delusion is this an example of? ideas of reference
When Maria heard on the radio that a hurricane was coming, she believed this was really a message that harm was going to befall her. What type of delusion is this an example of? ideas of reference
Sam believed that the Secret Service was planning to kill him and they were poisoning his food. Therefore, he would only eat food that he was certain was safe. What type of delusion is this an example of? persecution
Sally believed that she was Mary Magdalene and that Jesus controlled her thoughts and was telling her how to save the world. What type of delusion is this an example of? Grandeur
David told the doctor that his brain was rotting away. What type of delusion is this an example of? somatic delusions
Harry accused his girlfriend of going out owith other men, even though this was not the case. His proof was that she came home from work late twice that week. The late nights were explained by the boss, and he persisted. What type of delusion is this? jealousy
The belief that one's thoughts can be heard by others. thought broadcasting
The belief that thoughts of others are being inserted into ones mind. thought insertion
The belief that thoughts have been removed from one's mind by an outside agency. thought withdrawal
The belief that one's body or mind is controlled by an outside agency. delusion of being controlled.
"My brain is connected to the world mind. I can control all heads of state through my thoughts." This is an example of thought broadcasting
"They make me think bad thoughts." This is an example of thought insertion
"The devil takes my thoughts away and leaves me empty." This is an example of thought withdrawal
"There is a man from darkness who controls my thoughts with electrical waves." This is an example of delusion of being controlled
This refers to an overemphasis on specific details and impairment in the ability to use abstract concepts. concrete thinking
When a patient answers a question literally and is not able to use abstract reasoning, the ability for _______ thinking is absent. concrete
In schizophrenia __________ __ ____________ thinking becomes haphazard, illogical and confused. looseness of association
If the nurse does not understand what a schizophrenic patient is saying, it is important to let the patient know this
An honest response to a schizophrenic patient lets the patient know what 3 things? The nurse does not understand, she would like to understand, and will try to understand.
Words a person makes up that have special meaning for the person. Neologisms
Neologisms in people with schizophrenia represent a disruption in thought process
The pathological repeating of another's word by imitation and is often seen in people with catatonia. Echolalia
______ is the counterpart of echopraxia. echolalia
The mimicking of the movements of another which is often seen in people with catatonia. echopraxia
The meaningless rhyming of words, often in a forceful manner, in which the rhyming is often more important thatn the context of the word. clang association
Not only is clang association seen in schizophrenia, it can also be seen in patients in the manic phase of bipolar disorder or individuals with cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease ofr HIV related dementia.
A term used to identify a jumble of words that is meaningless to the listener and perhaps to the speaker as well. word salad
_______ are the major example of an alteration in perception in schizophrenia. hallucinations
______________ can be defined as sensory perceptions for which no external stimulus exists. hallucinations
The most common types of hallucinations are: Auditory,visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile.
Hearing voices or sounds that do not exist in the environment but are projections of inner thoughts or feelings. auditory hallucination
Seeing a person, object, or animal that does not exist in the environment. visual hallucination
Smelling ofors that are not present in the environment. olafactory hallucination
Tasting sensations tha have no stimulus in reality. gustatory hallucination
Feeling strange sensations where no external objects stimulate such feelings; common in delirium tremens tactile hallucination
What type of hallucinations are most common in schizophrenia? auditory hallucinations
These types of hallucinations may be terrifying for the patient and may signal a psychiatric emergency. command hallucinations
These types of hallucinations occur less frequently in people with schizophrenia and are more likely to occur in organic disorders. visual hallucinations
People with schizophrenia often lack a sense of what in regards to boundaries? Where their bodies end in relationship to where others begin.
Anna "hears" the voice of her dead mother call her a whore and a tramp is an example of what kind of hallucination? Auditory Hallucination
Charles, who is experiencing alcohol withdrawal delirium, "sees" hungry rats coming toward him is an example of what kind of hallucination? visual hallucination
Theresa "smells" her insides rotting is an example of what kind of hallucination? olfactory hallucination
Sam will not eat his food because he "tastes" the poison the FBI is putting in his food is an example of what kind of hallucination? gustatory hallucination
Jack suffers from paranoid schizophrenia. He "feels" electrical impulses controliling his mind. This is an example of what kind of hallucinations? tactile hallucination
A non specific feeling that t person has lost his or her identity, that the self is different or unreal. depersonalization
A person experiencing depersonalization may be concerned that body parts do not belong to them
A woman seeing her fingers as snakes or her arms as rotting wood is an example of a person experiencing depersonalization
The false perception by a person that the environment has changed. derealization
When a person experiences this alteration in perception, everything may seem bigger or smaller, or familiat surrounding have become somehow strange and unfamiliar. derealization
Both depersonalization and derealization can be interpreted as ____ ___ __________ . Loss of ego boundaries
motor patterns that originally had meaning to the person but are now mechanical and lack purpose. sterotyped behaviors
The performance by a catatonic client of all simple commands in a robotlike fashion. automatic obedience
Excessive maintenance of posture seen in catatonia. Waxy flexibility
A state in which the catatonic client is motionless for long periods and may even appear to be in a coma. stupor
When a patient does the opposite of what he or she is told to do. negativism
Slowness of movement, stupor, and negativism are considered ________ ________ of schizophrenia. negative symptoms
The negative symptoms of schizophrenia develop over a long time
_______ symptoms are the symptoms that most interfere with the individual's adjustment and ability to survive. negative symptoms
The presence of negative symptoms impedes the person's ability to: Initiate and maintain relationships and conversations, hold a job, make decisions, and maintain adequate hygiene and grooming.
In schizophrenia, the person's affect may not coincide with their inner emotions
Immobile facial expression or a blank look. flat affect
minimal emotional response blunt affect
An emotional response to a situation that is not congruent with he tone of the situation. inappropriate affect
Grimacing, giggling, and mumbling to oneself. bizarre affect
In schizophrenic patients, the degree of disorganized thinking reflects the degree to which disorganized ______, disorganized ________, or inappropriate ______ is present. Speech, behavior, affect
Good ______ ______ is one cognitive indicator that the individual eventually can function within the community because it helps with acquition of psychosocial skills, learning, and retention of skills. verbal memory
Inability to experience any pleasure in activities that usually produce pleasurable feelings; result of profound emotional barrenness. anhedonia
Lack of motivation; inability to initiate tasks, such as social contacts, grooming, and other aspects of daily living. avolition
Speech that is adequate in amount but conveys little information because of vagueness, empty repetitions, or use of sterotypes or obscure phrases. poverty of content of speech
Restriction in the amount of speech; answeres range from brief to monosyllabic one-word answers. poverty of speech
This may be signaled when a client stops talking in the middle of a sentence and remains silent. thought blocking
When there is a severe reduction in the expression and range and intensity of affect occurs. affective blunting