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# Mod 9-16 vocabulary

### Review vocabulary for Apologia Physical Science Module 9-16

Reference point A point against which position is measured
Vector quantity A physical measurement that contains directional information
Scalar quantity A physical measurement that does NOT contain directional information
Acceleration the time rate of change of an object's velocity
Free fall the state of an object that is falling towards the earth with nothing inhibiting its fall
Friction A force resulting from the contact of two surfaces. This force opposes motion
Static friction The friction that exists between surfaces when neither surface is moving relative to the other.
Kinetic friction The friction that exists between surfaces when at least one of those surfaces is moving relative to the other.
Newton's 1st Law The velocity of an object will not change unless the object is acted on by an outside force.
Newton's 2nd Law When an object is acted on by an outside force, the strength of that force is equal to the mass of the object times the resulting acceleration.
Newton's 3rd Law For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
4 Fundamental Forces gravitational, weak, strong, electromagnetic
photons small "packages" of light that act just like small particles
charging by conduction charging an object by allowing it to come into contactwith an object which already has an electrical charge
charging by induction charging an object by forcing some of the charges to leave the object
electrical current the amount of charge that travels through an electrical circuit each second
conventional current current that flows from the positive side of the battery to the negative side. This is the way current is drawn in circuit diagrams, even though it is wrong
resistance a measure of how much a metal impedes the flow of electrons
open circuit a circuit that does not have a complete connection betweenthe two sides of the battery. As a result current does not flow.
transverse wave a wave whose direction is perpendicular to its up and down motion
longitudal wave a wave whose direction is parallel to its up and down motion
supersonic speed any speed that is faster than the speed of sound in the substance of interest
sonic boom the sound produced as a result of aircraft traveling at or above Mach 1
pitch the highness or lowness of a sound
nuclear fusion the process by which two or more nuclei fuse to make a bigger nucleus
nuclear fission the process by which a large nucleus is split into two smaller nuclei
critical mass the amount of isotope necessary to cause a chain reaction
star magnitude the brightness of a star on a scale of -8 to +17. Smaller the number the brighter the star.
Light year the distance light travels in one year.
galaxy a massive ensemble of hundreds of millions of stars, all interacting through the gravitational force, orbiting around a common center
Created by: mckee