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Bio Exam 4

please let me do good

Julie was diagnosed with an aggressive tumor of the thyroid. Surgery was performed to remove the thyroid. However, post-operatively, Julie's blood calcium levels began declining to life-threatening levels. This decline is most likely due to accidental removal of the parathyroid glands during surgery.
Which of the following glands is both an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland? pancreas
In general, the response of target cells to endocrine stimulation is _______ than their response to nervous stimulation slower and more prolonged
The two functional portions of the pituitary gland are the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis.
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is secreted in response to increased osmotic pressure of the body fluids.
Which of the following is involved in the regulation of thyroid hormone levels? thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary
Removal of the anterior pituitary would affect the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Most hormones are regulated by negative-feedback mechanisms.
The connecting stalk between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland is the infundibulum.
The hypothalamohypophysial tract connects the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary.
The posterior pituitary has a direct connection with neurons of the hypothalamus.
The rate of secretion of parathyroid hormone increases when serum calcium levels decrease.
What type of chemical messenger is released from neurons to activate an adjacent cell? paracrine
Which of the following statements concerning the pancreas is true? Both glucagon and insulin are produced in the islets of Langerhans.
The endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys are the adrenal glands.
The zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands secretes the hormone cortisol.
What type of chemical messenger stimulates the cell that originally secreted it? autocrine
Which of the following statements is NOT true? Both the nervous and endocrine systems respond quickly and are active for a long time.
A function of the hypothalamohypophysial tract is to carry action potentials to the posterior pituitary causing the release of oxytocin
Which gland is located in the sella turcica? pituitary (hypophysis)
Members of which group of hormones are made from cholesterol? steroids
The amount of melatonin secreted by the pineal gland is regulated by the photoperiod (the daily amount of daylight).
If both ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and cortisol levels increase, which of the following would occur? High cortisol levels will begin to cause ACTH levels to decline.
An injection of epinephrine would increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, and decrease gastric tract motility.
The major secretory products of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex are mineralocorticoids.
Which of the following is NOT a description of acromegaly? chronic hypoglycemia
Which of the following hormones is secreted by the anterior pituitary? FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
Synthesis of progesterone in the ovary and testosterone in the testis is stimulated by LH (luteinizing hormone).
Chronic hypersecretion of growth hormone as a child would result in giantism.
Which of these hormones is NOT secreted by the adrenal cortex? norepinephrine
What role does oxytocin play in lactation? ejection of milk
What is it about a cell that identifies it as a target cell for a hormone? the presence of a receptor specific for that hormone
A function of insulin is to increase the uptake of glucose by its target tissues.
Increased metabolic activity and weight loss are associated with hyperthyroidism.
The hypothalamus regulates the secretory activity of the pituitary gland.
If GH (growth hormone) secretion is deficient in a newborn, the child will probably experience reduced bone growth.
Which of the following ions is necessary for thyroid hormone production? iodine
The endocrine system secretes chemicals that reach their targets through the bloodstream.
When blood sugar levels decrease insulin secretion decreases; glucagon secretion increases.
Which of the following stimulates the development of follicles in the ovary? FSH
The hypothalamohypophysial portal system carries hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.
Oxytocin is responsible for causing contractions of uterine smooth muscle during labor.
The primary stimulus for release of adrenal medullary hormones comes from the sympathetic nervous system.
The epicardium covers the surface of the heart
From the right ventricle, blood flows directly into the ____. pulmonary trunk
Which of the following phrases would apply to cardiac muscle cells? possess special cell-to-cell contacts called intercalated discs
What vessel exits the left ventricle? aorta
The procedure whereby a small balloon is placed into a partially occluded coronary artery and then inflated to increase blood flow through the artery is called a(n) angioplasty.
The chordae tendineae connect the flaps of the AV valves to the papillary muscles.
Coronary artery disease can diminish myocardial blood flow resulting in the death of myocardial cells. This condition is known as a myocardial infarction.
Which of the following heart chambers is correctly associated with the blood vessel that enters or leaves it? right ventricle - pulmonary trunk
The function of the pericardial fluid is to reduce friction between the pericardial membranes
The delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the body is accomplished through ________ circulation. systemic
E.Z. Goen is admitted to the cardiac unit with a diagnosis of endocarditis. When E.Z. asks the nurse where the infection is located, the nurse replies that the infection is in the inner lining of the heart.
An incompetent mitral valve may cause blood to back up into the left atrium.
Blood in the pulmonary veins returns to the left atrium.
The right side of the heart receives blood from the body and pumps through _________ circulation to the lungs. pulmonary
The right atrium receives blood from the body and the heart.
Which of the following is NOT true about the heart? the apex of the heart is directed superiorly and to the left.
The valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk is the pulmonary semilunar valve
Blood in the superior vena cava will enter the ____. right atrium
The heart is a four-chambered muscular pump.
The AV valve that is located on the same side of the heart as the origin of the aorta is the bicuspid or mitral valve.
The pericardial sac is lined with parietal pericardium.
Which of the following layers forms the bulk of the heart wall? myocardium
Regurgitation of blood flow through the aortic semilunar valve would give rise to a heart murmur.
A blood pressure reading of 120/80 would indicate a systolic pressure of 120 mm Hg.
In which type of blood vessels is the blood pressure the lowest? vena cavas
Resistance in the cardiovascular system tends to increase if blood viscosity increases.
Increased cardiac output ______ the blood pressure. increases
Systolic blood pressure is recorded: in arteries and is the maximal pressure that is recorded during ventricular contraction.
_______________ has the most important effect on blood velocity. Vessel radius
As viscosity of the blood increases, the pressure required to force it to flow increases.
Which of the following would increase resistance to blood flow? a decrease in the radius of the vessel
The vasomotor center of the __________________ controls blood vessels throughout the body. medulla oblongata
Blood is moved through the vascular system by pressure gradients created by the heart.
When there is a drop in blood pressure, the body reacts immediately by way of the baroreceptor mechanism
Blood pressure is the measure of force blood exerts against blood vessel walls
A force that causes the movement of fluid out of the capillary is blood pressure.
The structure of a capillary wall differs from that of a vein or artery because capillary walls have only endothelium and a basement membrane.
The blood vessels that are under the greatest pressure are the elastic arteries.
In the aorta, the blood pressure and blood velocity are both high.
In which type of blood vessels is the blood pressure the lowest? vena cavas
Systemic blood vessels transport blood from the left ventricle through the body to the right atrium.
The vasomotor center of the __________________ controls blood vessels throughout the body. medulla oblongata
The lining of a capillary is called the endothelium.
Veins that return blood directly to the heart include the superior vena cava.
The first blood vessels that branch from the ascending aorta are the coronary arteries.
An obstruction in the inferior vena cava would hamper the return of blood from the abdomen, pelvis, and lower limbs.
Continuous capillaries have a wall where the endothelial cells fit very tightly together
Which coat of an artery contains endothelium? tunica intima
The exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of capillaries.
Which of the following organs would be most likely to contain fenestrated capillaries? kidney
Systemic circulation includes the aorta and all of its branches.
Valves similar to the semilunar valves of the heart are found in medium and large veins.
Blood is moved through the vascular system by pressure gradients created by the heart.
Which is the most common type of capillary? Continuous
blood froMheart to right hand, blood leaves the heart, passes through the ascending aorta, aortic arch, right subclavian artery, axillary and brachial arteries, either the radial or ulnar arteries and palmar arches to arrive at the hand. Missing? brachiocephalic
Veins may contain valves and are lined with endothelium.
In the pulmonary circulation, the _____ carry blood to the lungs. pulmonary arteries
When contrasting arteries and veins, which of the following statements is true? Arteries have a thicker tunica media than veins.
Which statement is CORRECT? Veins contain valves and arteries do not.
blood flow of the heart inferior and superior vena cava, deox blood to the r. atrium, r. ventricle, tricuspid, leaves through pulmonic valve into pulmonary artery, and into the lungs, the pulm veins carry oxygen blood back into the l. atrium, l. ventricle, bicuspid, and aorta
paracrine secrete through extracellular fluid
hormones secrete through blood
steroid hormone gonads and adrenal glands
what is a nucleus bundle of cell bodies that produce ADH and OXT
posterior pituitary love horomone, uterne smooth muscle, kidney collecting ducts
oxytocin and vasopressin both released into blood
hypothalamus goes to anterior pititary
GHRH- GH-most cells-skeletal muscle tissue
ACRH- CTH-adrenal cortext-steroid hormones
GnRH- FSH-ovaries and testes
TRH - thryroid- TSH - throid gland
Proactin- mamary glands-milk
arteries take blood away from the heart
veins take blood to the the heart
capillaries connect and exchange veins and arteries
pulmonary circuit starts in pulm truck, ateries, lungs, and ends at pulm veins
systemic circuit starts in aorta goes trhough circulation and ends at the vena cavas when entering the right artium
the endothelium is found in the tunica intima
closer to the heart arteries would be expected to have a higher percentage of elastic fibers
describe veins thin walled, large lumen, low pressure, have valves
describe arteries thick walled, smaller lumen, high pressure, lack valves
a leaky type pf capillary found in the liver and certain other tissues is called sinusoid capillary
a capillary found in the kidney is fenestrated capillary
as blood moves through the arterial system into the capillary networks and then into the venous system blood pressure decreases
during vasoconstriction smooth muscle in blood vessels contracts
what is the correct sequence of layers in the vessel wall from the outside to the inside tunica externa, tunica media, and tunica intima
how is tissue fluid formed osmosis draws out water of the capillaries
which of the following blood vessels hold the greatest volume of blood veins
plasma proteins that remain in the blood capillaries help maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood
blood pressure in the systemic arteries is greatest during ventricular systole
which of the following statements about albumin is true it is the most abundant plasma protein
what is true about mature circulating erythrocytes they have no nucleus
neurophil abudant, granular, effective against bacteria
what is not importatn in preventing backflow endocardium
which lists the valves in the order through which the blood flows from the vena cava through the heart tricuspid, pulmonary semilunar, bicuspid, aortic semilunar
starting ath the inner most layer of the ehart and travelin outward the names of the layers in order are endocardium, myocardium, epicardium, pericarium
the normal osmotic pressure of the plasma is simliar to .9% NaCl solution
blood cell destruction occurs mainly i the spleen
which contains deoxygentated blood coronary sinus
suppose a red blood cell is in the pulmonary trunk what heart valve with it pass next bicuspid mitral
the right side of the heart is associated with teh ____ circulation and the left side of the heart os associated with the ___ circulation pulmonry, systemic
what exerts control over the pituiaty gland hypothalamus
what two horomones are relased from the neurohypophysis oxytocin and antidiuretic horomone
what endocrine gland relases a horomone that acts to stimulate the follicular cells to manufacture and release their two horomes t3 and t4 adenohypopysis
tropic hormones stimulate other endocrine glands to secrete horomes
which of the following physiologic functions is not regulated by anterior pituitary hormones nerve axons
which of the following is an anterior pit hormone TSH
how man horomes are produced by the pos pit 0
which of these anterior pit hormones regulates the activity of the cortex region of the adrenal gland ACTH
relasing hormones produced by the hypthalamus influence the activities of the ____ post pit gland
the fight or flight response triggers the relase of epinephrine
Created by: alexs13
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