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Biology:Genetics

Year 10 Genetics revision for the preparation of exams

TermDefinition
Chromosomes Chromosomes are tiny structures inside cells made from DNA and protein. The information inside chromosomes acts like a recipe that tells cells how to function. (Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes)
DNA The actual instructions inside the chromosome is stored in a long molecule called DNA.The DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid.
mRNA
Amino Acids Amino acids are special organic molecules used by living organisms to make proteins
Base pairing A base pair is one of the pairs A-T or G-C. Notice that each base pair consists of a purine and a pyrimidine. The nucleotides in a base pair are complementary which means their shape allows them to bond together with hydrogen bonds.
Genes Genes carry the information that determines your traits which are features or characteristics that are passed on to you or inherited from your parent, (They are located on chromosomes)
Traits Traits are characteristics that are passed down from one generation to another
Alleles Alleles are different forms of the same trait the can be Dominant or Recessive While the section of DNA is called a gene, a specific pattern in a gene is allele. For example, the gene would determine the hair color. The specific pattern of the hair color
Mitosis Mitosis is the cause of cells spiting apart it duplicates its DNA and the two new cells (daughter cells) have the same pieces and genetic code. Two identical copies come from one original (division of body cells)
Meiosis Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. as in the production of male sperm and female eggs (division of Sex cells)
Genotypes A Genotype is the collection of genes responsible for the various genetic traits of a given organism
Phenotypes A Phenotype is physical appearance and the set of observes characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its Genotype with the environments
Transcription and Translation
Dominant allele a dominant allele becomes a trait even if just one copy of it is present (one from mum and one from dad, are present. If one dominant allele and one recessive allele are present, the dominant allele trait will be expressed)
Recessive allele a recessive allele does not become a trait unless both copies of the gene (one from mum and one from dad, are present. If one dominant allele and one recessive allele are present, the dominant allele trait will be expressed)
Punnett Square The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment. It is named after Reginald C. Punnett, who devised the approach.
Gregor Mendel Gregor Mendel is considered the father of the science of genetics. Mendel was a scientist during the 1800s who studied inheritance by experimenting with pea plants in his garden.
Diploid Diploid cells contain two complete sets (2n) of chromosomes.
Haploid Haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes
Co Dominants Relating to two alleles of a gene pair in a hetero-zygote that are both fully expressed. When alleles for both white and red are present in a carnation, for example, the result is a pink carnation since both alleles are co dominant.
Incomplete Dominance
Homozygous
Heterozygous
Gamete Gametes are an organism's reproductive cells. They are also referred to as sex cells. Female gametes are called ova or egg cells, and male gametes are called sperm. Gametes are haploid cells, and each cell carries only one copy of each chromosome
Karyotype / Karyotyping
gene therapy
Mutagens
Mutations A mutation is a change that occurs in our DNA sequence, either due to mistakes when the DNA is copied or as the result of environmental factors such as UV light and cigarette smoke.
Codons
Pedigrees Pedigrees are used to analyze the pattern of inheritance of a particular trait throughout a family. Pedigrees show the presence or absence of a trait as it relates to the relationship among parents, offspring, and siblings.
X Linked inheritance
Inheritance of ABO blood groups
Created by: STICK123