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SpecialSenses

Exam 6 - Lecture 4

QuestionAnswer
What are the two layers of olfactory organs? Olfactory Epithelium and Lamina Propria
Which of layer of the olfactory organs contains Olfactory Receptor Cells? Olfactory Epithelium
Which layer of the olfactory organs contain Bipolar Neurons, Supporting Cells, and Basal Cells? Olfactory Epithelium
Which layer of the olfactory organs contain blood vessels, nerves, and thick mucus? Lamina Propria
Which layer of the olfactory organs contain Olfactory Glands (Bowman’s Glands)? Lamina Propria
What does the thick mucus in the Lamina Propria do? Traps odorants (chemicals)
Which bone do axons leaving the Olfactory Epithelium go through to reach Olfactory Bulbs? Ethmoid Bone
Axons leaving Olfactory Bulb travel to the _____________ but pass through the _________ and __________, which is why there are emotions tied to smells Travel to the Cerebral Cortex, but pass through the Limbic System and Hypothalamus
Odorants interact with ___________ on the cilia which then interact with G Proteins and open ______ channels which causes an action potential to send information to the CNS Interact with Olfactory Receptors; G Proteins open Na+ channels
How many Olfactory Receptors are packed onto the cilia? 10-20 million
Dogs have up to ____ times the receptor surface area 72 times
As few as ___ odorant molecules can activate an Olfactory Receptor 4 molecules
What odorant is added to natural gas and propane? Beta-Mercaptan
Where does scent adaptation occur? Centrally (NOT in the Olfactory Receptors)
Sense of smell decreases _________ than your sense of taste over time More so
As you age, the _________ of Olfactory Receptors declines Total Number
Three Smell Disorders Hyposmia (partial loss of smell), Anosmia (complete loss of smell), Dysosmia (distorted identification of odors)
Causes of Smell Disorders Age, genetics, trauma, allergic rhinitis, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, toxins, endocrine disturbances, medication (less than 1% of cases)
Are smell disorders are more common in men or women? Men
Less than ___% of smell disorders are due to medications 1%
Hyposmia Partial loss of sense of smell
Hyposmia is caused by which Top 200 Drugs? Promethazine, Methotrexate, Pravastatin, Gemfibrozil
Promethazine causes which Smell Disorder? Hyposmia
Methotrexate causes which Smell Disorder? Hyposmia
Pravastatin causes which Smell Disorder? Hyposmia
Gemfibrozil causes which Smell Disorder? Hyposmia
Anosmia Complete loss of sense of smell
Why is Anosmia dangerous? Can’t smell gas leak, fire, spoiled food
Anosmia is caused by which Top 200 Drugs? Amoxicilin, Doxycycline, Lovastatin, Metronidazole, Nifedipine
Amoxicillin causes which Smell Disorders? Anosmia and Dysosmia
Doxycycline causes which Smell Disorders? Anosmia and Dysosmia
Lovastatic causes which Smell Disorder? Anosmia
Metronidazole causes which Smell Disorder? Anosmia
Nifedipine causes which Smell Disorder? Anosmia
Dysosmia Distorted smell identification of odors
Dysosmia is caused by which Top 200 Drugs? Amoxicillin, Doxycycline
Types of Dysosmia: Parosmia, Phantosmia, Agnosmia
Parosmia Altered perception of smell in the presence of an odor, usually unpleasant (odor is actually present, just smells unpleasant to the person even if it’s not)
Phantosmia Smelling an odor that is not there, can be pleasant or unpleasant
Agnosmia Can smell odor, but can’t identify it
Where are Taste Receptors located? Superior surface of tongue and adjacent portions of Pharynx and Larynx
Taste Buds are formed from: Taste Receptors and Epithelial Cells
What are the 3 types of Lingual Papillae? Filiform Papillae, Fungiform Papillae, Circumvallate Papillae
Filiform Papillae Do not contain taste buds; create friction and help move food around mouth
Fungiform Papillae Contain about 5 taste buds each
Circumvallate Papillae Form a V on posterior surface of tongue; contain about 100 taste buds each
All taste buds contain receptors for ______ taste sensations All
Taste Receptors are made up of: Basal Cells (stem cells), Transitional Cells, and Gustatory Cells (Taste Hairs and Taste Pore)
What cells make up Gustatory Cells? Taste Hairs (microvilli) and Taste Pores
Which Cranial Nerves monitor Taste Buds? VII (Facial), IX (Glossopharyngeal), X (Vagus)
___________ Receptors play a large role in taste perception Olfactory
What are the four primary taste sensations? Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter
What are the two additional taste sensations? Umami (pleasant taste, amino acids – especially Gluatamate) and Water (receptors in Pharynx)
Where are receptors for the “taste” sensation of water located? Pharynx
Which taste receptors use chemically-gated ion channels to cause action potentials? Salt (dependent on Na+) and Sour (dependent on H+)
Which taste receptors use G Proteins to release neurotransmitters and cause action potentials? Sweet, Bitter, and Umami (Umami can use ion channels too)
Which taste receptors can use both Chemically-gated Ion Channels and G Protein pathways to cause action potentials? Umami
Which taste is a probably sixth taste? Calcium (tastes bitter and a little sour)
Which foods have high calcium that you can taste? Collard Greens, Kale, Bitter Melon
Why can’t we taste the Calcium in milk and dairy products? Calcium binds to fats and proteins, which prevents the tasting of Calcium
Why is it important to know if we have a sixth taste for Calcium? May be a link between low Calcium and obesity or osteoporosis
We are much more sensitive to ________ and _________ tastes than to _________ and _________ tastes Bitter and Sour than to Salty and Sweet
Why is it physiologically relevant that we are more sensitive to Bitter and Sour tastes? Many toxic or poisonous plants are bitter; We can also tell if food is spoiled
We begin with ________ Taste Buds, but the total number of Gustatory Receptors declines with age 10,000
Which two compounds determine if you can taste Bitter or not? Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP)
Which gene determines your ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP)? TAS2R38 (Dominant Trait)
The gene for the ability to taste Bitter (TAS2R38) is a __________ trait Dominant
What does the gene for the ability to taste Bitter (TAS2R38) determine? Your sensitivity to foods
___% of people are Non-Tasters 25%
___% of people are Normal Tasters 50%
___% of people are Supertasters 25%
Supertaster Tastes are more intense, especially Bitter; Depends on sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP)
Whether you are a Supertaster or not depends on your sensitivity to which compound? 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP)
Which foods are too bitter for Supertasters? Green tea, Soy milk, Cabbage, Brussels sprouts, Broccoli, Fruits
Characteristics of a Supertaster Altered BMI, Less likely to smoke, May affect more females than males, Higher risk of cancer?
Hearing Detection of sound waves
Equilibrium involves: Rotation, Gravity, Linear Acceleration
Components of the External Ear: Auricle, External Acoustic Meatus (Canal), Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum)
Function of the External Acoustic Meatus (Canal) Contains Ceruminous Glands that secrete cerumen (earwax) which inhibits the growth of microorganisms
Cerumen Earwax; Secreted by Ceruminous Glands in the External Acoustic Meatus (Canal)
Function of the Auracle Funnels sound waves into the External Acoustic Meatus (Canal)
Functions of the Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum) Separates External Ear and Middle Ear; Vibrates in response to sound waves
All of the parts for hearing and equilibrium are located in the __________ Ear Inner
Components of the Middle Ear Auditory Ossicles (Malleus, Incus, Stapes) and Auditory Tube (Eustachian Tube)
What are the three Auditory Ossicles? Malleus (“hammer”), Incus (“anvil”), Stapes (“stirrup”)
Function of Auditory Ossicles Conducts vibration to Inner Ear
Function of Auditory Tube (Eustachian Tube) Connects to the Pharynx which allows for equalization of pressures on either side of the Tympanic membrane
Where can microorganisms enter the Middle Ear and cause an infection? Auditory Tube (Eustachian Tube) – Middle Ear infection is called Otitis Media
Why do toddlers get so many ear infections? Auditory Tube (Eustachian Tube) is large enough for microorganisms to enter, but too small to allow for proper drainage
Components of the Inner Ear Bony Labrinth (Semicircular Canals, Cochlea, Vestibule) and Membranous Labyrinth
Components of the Bony Labyrinth Semicircular Canals, Cochlea, Vestibule (contains Utricle and Saccule)
Which parts of the Bony Labyrinth are responsible for equilibrium? Semicircular Canals and Vestibule
Which parts of the Bony Labyrinth are responsible for hearing? Cochlea (Cochlear Duct)
Membranous Labyrinth Fluid-filled tubes in the Inner Ear that contain Endolymph and are surrounded by Perilymph
Endolymph Fluid inside of the Membranous Labyrinth of the Inner Ear
Perilymph Fluid surrounding the Membranous Labyrinth of the Inner Ear (between the Bony Labyrinth and Membranous Labyrinth)
What are the three Semicircular Ducts? Anterior, Posterior, Lateral
What does each Semicircular Duct contain? Ampulla (which is made up of a Cupula, Hair Cells, and has a sensory nerve attached to it)
Cupula Gelatinous structure inside of Ampulla; Contains Hair Cells
Hair Cells have _________ and a __________ Have Stereocilia and have a Kinocilium
The cilia on Hair Cells are moved by __________ which causes distortion of the _________ which can lead to depolarization and stimulation of a neuron Moved by external forces; causes distortion of Stereocilia
Hair Cells allow for detection of __________ movements of the head Rotational
When are Anterior Semicircular Ducts stimulated? When you shake your head “yes”
When are Posterior Semicircular Ducts stimulated? When you tilt your head side to side
When are Lateral Semicircular Ducts stimulated? When you shake your head “no”
The Utricle and Saccule contain _________ that determine linear acceleration and sense of gravity Maculae
Maculae Located in the Utricle and Saccule; Hair Cells embedded in a gelatinous mass; Also contain Statoconia (Calcium carbonate crystals) that distort the Hair Cells when they are moved
Statoconia Located in Maculae; Distort Hair Cells when they move
Motion Sickness is a conflict between ______________ and ______________ Visual cues and Inner Ear
Vertigo False perception of movement
Symptoms of Vertigo Dizzy, spinning feeling, Nausea, Lightheadedness, Gait disturbances
Things that affect Inner Ear fluids and can result in Vertigo: Alcohol, Viral infection, High fever
Two treatments for Motion Sickness: 1. Histamine Receptor Agonists (Dimenhydrinate [Dramamine], Promethazine) 2. Acetylcholine Receptor (Muscarinic) Antagonists (Scopolamine patch)
Histamine Receptor Agonists used to treat Motion Sickness Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) and Promethazine
Acetylcholine Receptor (Muscarinic) Agonist used to treat Motion Sickness Scopolamine (patch)
Components of the Cochlea Vestibular Duct, Cochlear Duct, Organ of Corti (which contains Hair Cells)
What structure does the Organ of Corti sit on? Basilar Membrane
If the Basilar Membrane bounces up and down, __________ are pushed against the Tectorial Membrane which causes an action potential Hair Cells
Frequency Based on number of waves (cycles) per second
High Frequency High Pitch; Short Wavelength
Low Frequency Low Pitch; Long Wavelength
Amplitude Intensity of sound (measured in Decibels)
What is Amplitude measured in? Decibels
Oval Window Area where Stapes is connected to the Cochlea
Round Window Area where the Tympanic Duct will bulge out when the Stapes is pushing against the Oval Window
Which two Ducts are filled with Perilymph? Vestibular Duct and Tympanic Duct
Which Duct is filled with Endolymph? Cochlear Duct
Frequency of sound is determined by: Where the Basilar Membrane is distorted
Amplitude is determined by: The number of Hair Cells stimulated by the sound
When the Stapes moves inward, the Basilar Membrane distorts toward the _________ and the Round Window is ____________ Distorts toward the Round Window; the Round Window is pushed outward
When the Stapes moves outward, the Basilar Membrane distorts toward the _________ and the Round Window is ___________ Distorts toward the Oval Window; the Round Window is pulled inward
The closer to the Oval Window the Basilar Membrane is distorted, the _______ the Frequency of sound heard Higher
Two Types of Deafness 1. Nerve Deafness (impairment of Cochlea or Auditory Nerve [Inner Ear] – permanent deafness) 2. Conduction Deafness (impairment of physical structures that conduct sounds into Inner Ear [Middle Ear] – sound waves can still be conducted into Cochlea)
Nerve Deafness is caused by: Impairment of Cochlea or Auditory Nerve (Inner Ear) – Permanent deafness
Conduction Deafness is caused by: Impairment of the physical structures of the ear that conduct sounds into the Inner Ear (Middle Ear) – Sound waves can still be conducted into Cochlea
Vestibulopathology Problems with balance (Vertigo)
Cochleopathology Problems with hearing (Tinnitus and Hearing Loss)
Tinnitus Early symptom of problems with hearing; False perception of sound (ringing in the ears)
Treatments for Tinnitus 1. Anesthetics (blocks Na+ channels, prevents depolarization) [Procaine, Lidocaine] 2. Benzodiazepines (potentiate GABA, augments hyperpolarization) [Lorazepam, Diazepam]
Hearing loss can be ________ or _________ Temporary or Permanent
Which frequencies are usually lost first when you start to lose your hearing? High Frequencies
Drug-induced Ototoxicity May be due to high dose and/or long-term use; Directly or indirectly damage Hair Cells or nerves; Can cause Vertigo, Tinnitus, Deafness
What are the 4 major types of Ototoxic Drugs? Antimicrobials, NSAIDs, Loop Diuretics, Platinum Oncology Agents
How do Antimicrobials induce Ototoxicity? Directly damage Hair Cells (Gentamicin, Streptomycin, Neomycin, Erythromycin, Vancomycin)
How does Gentamicin induce Ototoxicity? Directly damages Hair Cells
How does Streptomycin induce Ototoxicity? Directly damages Hair Cells
How does Neomycin induce Ototoxicity? Directly damages Hair Cells
How does Erythromycin induce Ototoxicity? Directly damages Hair Cells
How does Vancomycin induce Ototoxicity? Directly damages Hair Cells
How do NSAIDs induce Ototoxicity? Indirectly inhibit the Cochlear Nerve, possibly via vasoconstriction (Salicylates [Aspirin])
How does Aspirin (Salicylate) induce Ototoxicity? Indirectly inhibits the Cochlear Nerve, possibly via vasoconstriction
How do Loop Diuretics induce Ototoxicity? Directly inhibit K+ membrane transport in Hair Cells; Indirectly decrease Endocochlear Fluid, which increases concentration of ototoxic agents (Furosemide)
How does Furosemide induce Ototoxicity? Directly inhibits K+ membrane transport in Hair Cells; Indirectly decreases Endocochlear Fluid, which increases concentration of ototoxic agents
How do Platinum Oncology Agents induce Ototoxicity? Directly affect Nitrous Oxide production in Hair Cells, Reactive Oxygen Species formation (Cisplatin, Carboplatin)
How does Cisplatin induce Ototoxicity? Directly affects Nitrous Oxide production in Hair Cells, Reactive Oxygen Species formation
How does Carboplatin induce Ototoxicity? Directly affects Nitrous Oxide production in Hair Cells, Reactive Oxygen Species formation
Created by: Cyndi1087