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Exam 6 - Lecture 1

CNS is composed of: The brain and spinal cord (SC)
PNS is composed of: Neural tissue outside of the CNS
Functions of PNS 1. Delivers sensory information to the CNS 2. Delivers motor commands to periphery skin, organs, muscle, joints, etc
How many pairs of cranial nerves extend off of the brain? 12
How many pairs of spinal nerves extend off of the spinal cord? 31
Four components protecting the Spinal Cord 1. Vertebrae 2. Adipose tissue and blood vessels 3. Cerebrospinal fluid 4. Meninges
Where do spinal nerves ‘exit’ the spinal cord? Intervertebral Foramen
Disc Between each vertebrae; acts as a shock absorber
Spinal column (bone) outgrows spinal cord (CNS) at ___ years old 4
Adult spinal cord ends at L1 (conus medullaris)
Cauda Equina begins at: L1 (goes down from there)
Dorsal and Ventral roots of ___-___ spinal nerves extend inferiorly in spinal column and look like a horse’s tail L2-S5
Adipose tissue and blood vessels are located in: Epidural space
Cerebrospinal Fluid is located in: Subarachnoid space and Central canal
Meninges are: Collagen and elastin coverings of spinal cord
Functions of Meninges 1. Protects from canal 2. Provides stability and shock absorption
Layers of the Meninges: [outside] Dura Mater, Arachnoid Mater, Pia Mater [inside]
Dura Mater means: ”Tough Mother”
Dura Mater is the _______ layer outermost
Function of Dura Mater Tethers spinal cord at the top and bottom of spinal canal
Dura Mater blends with _________ at the top of the spinal cord and becomes continuous with ________. Foramen Magnum Periosteum; Cranial Dura
Dura Mater blends with _________ (which eventually blends with ________) at the bottom of the spinal cord Coccygeal Ligament; Periosteum of Coccyx
Flium Terminale (Terminal Thread) Fibrous tissue at the base of the spinal cord (L1) that extends into the sacrum and eventually forms the coccygeal ligament (which eventually blends with coccyx periosteum)
Arachnoid Mater means: ”Spidery Mother”
Arachnoid Mater is the _______ layer Middle
Arachnoid Mater is made up of: Connective tissue that extends into underlying Pia Mater
Subarachnoid Space contains: Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Vessels
Pia Mater means: ”Delicate Mother”
Pia Mater is the _______ layer Innermost
Pia Mater is made up of: Connective tissue that is interwoven with above Arachnoid Mater and is firmly interwoven with underlying neural tissue (spinal cord)
Pia Mater is connected to the Arachnoid Mater and Dura Mater by: Denticulate Ligaments
Denticulate Ligaments Laterally extend from the Pia Mater to provide lateral stability (connect to the Arachnoid Mater and Dura Mater)
Epidural Space Space between Dura Mater and Vertebrae
Subdural Space Space between Dura Mater and underlying Arachnoid Mater
Subarachnoid Space Space between Arachnoid Mater and Pia Mater
Lumbar Puncture (LP)/Spinal Tap CSF is removed from Subarachnoid Space; can detect infections, inflammation, cancer
LP/Spinal Tap removes CSF from: Subarachnoid Space
Spinal Anesthetic Injection into Subarachnoid Space/CSF that causes ’local’ blockage of sensory and motor nerves (more diffuse anesthesia)
Epidural Anesthetic Injection into Epidural Space that causes local blockage of sensory (and some motor) nerves
Which Anesthetic is Injected into the Subarachnoid Space? Spinal Anesthetic
Which Anesthetic is Injected into the Epidural Space? Epidural Anesthetic
Gray Matter is composed of: Nuclei/cell bodies, Neuroglia, Unmyelinated axons
Spinal Horns ”H”-shaped gray matter in spinal cord
Dorsal Horn Dorsal/’posterior’ gray matter of the spinal cord
Function of Dorsal Horn Receives sensoty information from peripheral receptors (axons from Dorsal Roots synapse here)
Dorsal Horn receives ______ information Sensory
Axons from Dorsal Roots synapse at the: Dorsal Horn
Dorsal Root Axons from Dorsal Root Nuclei that come off of the Dorsal Horn
Function of Dorsal Root Afferent fibers that receive sensory information from periphery and send it to Dorsal Horn Nuclei in spinal cord [information in]
Dorsal Root Ganglia Cell bodies of sensory neurons
Dorsal Root Ganglia have receptors in the ________ and synapse on cell bodies in _______. Periphery; Dorsal Horn of spinal cord
Ventral Horn Ventral/’anterior’ gray matter of the spinal cord
Function of Ventral Horn Sends/Relays motor information to peripheral receptors
Ventral Horn sends ________ information Motor
Axons from _______ synapse at the Ventral Horn Ventral Roots
Ventral Root Axons from Ventral Horn Nuclei
Function of Ventral Root Efferent fibers that send/relay motor information to periphery to cause muscle movement, glandular secretions, etc
Ventral Root Ganglia Non-existant; Nuclei of motor fibers are in Ventral Horn of spinal cord
Cell bodies of Ventral Root are in the: Ventral Horn
Cell body of sensory neurons is located in: Dorsal Root Ganglia
Cell body of motor neurons is located in: Ventral Horn
Visceral Region of Dorsal Horn Sensory (afferent) input from organs
Somatic Region of Dorsal Horn Sensory (afferent) input from skin, muscles, joints
Visceral Region of Ventral Horn Motor (efferent) output to organs
Somatic Region of Ventral Horn Motor (efferent) output to skeletal muscles
Some regions of spinal cord have a lateral horn that contains cell bodies of ______ and _____. SNS and PSNS
Spinal Nerves Joining of Ventral and Dorsal Roots; Bundles of sensory and motor axons; Carry sensory and motor information
Spinal Nerves Carry what Type of Information? Sensory and Motor
31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves Divided into: 8 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 5 Sacral, 1 Coccygeal
How many Cervical Nerves? 8
How many Thoracic Nerves? 12
How many Lumbar Nerves? 5
How many Sacral Nerves? 5
How many Coccygeal Nerves? 1
The Spinal Nerves are part of the ____ Nervouse System Peripheral
White Matter Outer section of Spinal Cord; Myelinated axon
Tracts Bundles of similar (size, speed, direction, information) CNS axons; sensory or motor, not mixed
Can Tracts contain both sensory and motor nerves? No, they cannot be mixed
Ascending Tracts Carry Sensory information to brain
Descending Tracts Carry Motor commands to spinal cord
Columns Groups of Tracts (anterior, posterior, and lateral locations in Spinal Cord) that are a combination of sensory and motor tracts
Can Columns contain both sensory and motor Tracts? Yes
Plexus Network of nerves that innervate specific areas
Cervical Plexus Innervates: Neck, Diaphragm
Brachial Plexus Innervates: Chest, Arms
Lumbar Plexus Innervates: Lower Torso, Legs
Celiac (Solar) Plexus Innervates: Stomach/Diaphragm
Created by: Cyndi1087