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mech.and chemical

6.1, 6.2, and 6.3 guided notes

QuestionAnswer
this principle states that the same processes that operate today operated in the past uniformitarianism
the removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice, or gravity erosion
the process that breaks down rock and other substances at Earth's surface weathering
type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces mechanical weathering
the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes chemical wathering
the grinding away of rock by rock particles carried by water, ice, wind, or gravity abrasion
process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands frost wedging
iron combines with oxygen in the presence of water, the product is rust oxidation
means that a material is full of tiny, connected air spaces that allow water to seep through it. permeable
weathering is the _______ and _______ processes that break down rock at Earth's surface chemical, physical
weathering and ______ work together to _____ Earth's surface erosion, change
mechanical weathering is the type of weathering in which rock is _________ broken down into smaller pieces physically
chemical weathering can occur from; . action of _____ . oxygen . carbon dioxide . ______ organisms . acid rain water, living
what factors determine the rate of weathering? type of rock and climate
the minerals that make up a certain type of rock determines how _______ it weathers fast
________ refers to the average weather conditions in an area climate
both chemical and mechanical weathering occur faster in ___ and ____ climates hot, wet
loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow. soil
what is soil made of? particles of weathered rock, minerals, decayed organic material, water, and air
a dark- colored substance that forms as plant and animal remains decay. humus
soil that is rich in _____ is fertile humus
measures how well the soil supports plant growth in that soil fertility
the _____ _______ depends on the size of soil particles soil texture
_____ can hold a lot of water. This can be bad because the plants can _____. clay, drown
________ ____ has a course texture ,causing water to drain through it quickly. sandy soil
sandy soil is bad because plants can die from _____________. dehydration
______ is made of clay, sand, and silt ( sometimes gravel). This soil is _________ for growing most plants. loam, perfect
there are different layers of soil called the _____ ________. soil horizons
horizon __- topsoil A
horizon __- subsoil B
horizon __- contains only partly weathered rock C
some soil organisms make _____ humus
some soil organisms mix the soil and make spaces in it for ___ and _____. air, water
___________ are the organisms that break the remains of dead organisms into smaller pieces and _______ them with chemicals. decomposers, digest
after a plant dies, it is "___________" by decomposers. This helps keep the soil rich in __________. processed, nutrients
earthworms and other burrowing animals help ___ and ________ soil. Both of which are necessary for _____ soil. mix, generate, rich
how far beneath the surface does each cross section of soil show? one meter
in a northern forest soil, what is above the topsoil and how does it form? litter; it is formed by dead leaves and plant remains.
everything that lives on Earth depends on ____. soil
soil takes a ____ time to form. long
Created by: Giana.gabriel