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cells

VOCAB

TermDefinition
Cell the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
Cell theory the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
Organelle(s) Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
Organism A living thing that has an organized structure, can react to stimuli, reproduce, grow, adapt, and maintain homeostasis.
Cytology A branch of biology that studies the structure and function of plant and animal cells.
Nucleus a membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction
Diffusion the movement of a fluid from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Osmosis The tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane
Active transport the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.
Phagocytosis the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans.
Pinocytosis a mode of endocytosis in which small particles suspended in extracellular fluid are brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, resulting in a suspension of the particles within a small vesicle
Semi-permeable (of a material or membrane) allowing certain substances to pass through it but not others, especially allowing the passage of a solvent but not of certain solutes.
Mitochondria Cellular respiration
Ribosome(s) proteins are made here
Cell wall a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants it consists mainly of cellulose.
Viruses a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism.
Centriole(s) a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
Chloroplast(s) (in green plant cells) a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
Phylum a level of classification or taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class
Endoplasmic reticulum a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
Created by: UWUBT21