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Molecular Bio: Translation

Genetic code is "degenerate". What does this mean? more than one codon can code for a single amino acid (UUU & UUC both form Phe) a.k.a. "Redundancy"
Start codons? AUG in RNA. ATG in DNA (codes for methionine)
Stop codons? UGA, UAA, UAG (Univ Georgia, Univ Alaska Anchorage, Universidad Autonama Guadalajara)
how many codons are there total? 64. 63 actual encode AAs, 3 are stop codons
What are Silent mutations? a point mutation that codes for the same AA, so no harm
What are Missense mutations? a point mutation that codes for a new AA, altering the protein (eg: Sickle Cell Anemia [glycine-->valine])
What are Nonsense mutations? a point mutation that codes for a stop codon (eg: Hemophilia A)
What are Frameshift mutations? deletion or insertion of nucleotides that are NOT multiples of 3. (eg: deletion=Duchenne's MD, insertion=Tay Sachs, deletion of a multiple of 3=Cystic Fibrosis, insertion of mult of 3=Huntingtons & Fragile X)
Always assume the coding strand is given. Yeah, that's it. It's not a question. Nothing to see here.
3 possible consequences of mutations at a splice site? a piece of intron gets included in the final transcript, a piece of exon gets removed in final transcript, an entire exon(s) is removed from final transcript
Name 5 diseases due to trinucleotide repeat explansions Huntingtons, Friedrich Ataxia, Fragile X, Myotonic Dystrophy, Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy. (huntingtons is CAG (Glu) repeats)
How many high energy bonds to activate an AA (bind it to tRNA)? 2 high energy bonds (ATP--> AMP + PPi)
Which type of AAs are present at the N-Terminal of a protein? Hydrophobic AAs (Lys Arg His Ser Thr Cys Met Asn Gln Asp Glu)
Translation begins in cytoplasm. Where does it go from here? What element ensures this movement of location? Moves to RER. The Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) causes it to move. SRP is located at N-terminal of protein. Signal Peptidases remove SRP once it is in RER.
Where does N Glycolysation and O Glycolysation occur? N Glycolysation is in RER (co-translational); O Glycolysation is in Golgi (post-translational)
What mechanism causes protein to enter lysosome? What is absence of this mechanism called? Phosphorylation of Mannose. Absence = I-cell disease
What 3 proteins are NOT N-glycosolated? Insulin, Glucagon, Albumin
Which AA is most common in Collagen? Glycine (Gly-X-Y)
Vit C is required for what process in Collagen synthesis? Hydroxylation of Prolines and Lysines
Osteogenesis Imperfecta is due to absence of what element of Collagen? Signal Sequence
Ehler Danlos IV is due to absence of what enzyme in Collagen synth? Lysyl Hydroxylase
What 2 enzymes require Vit C Prolyl Hydroxylase, Lysyl Hydroxylase
Pro-peptide cleavage of Collagen occurs where? (inside fibroblast or outside fibroblast)? Outside
What enzyme is used to form the triple helix of Collagen in the final step of synthesis? What does its deficiency cause? Lysyl Oxidase. Deficiency = Ehlers Danlos IX (Meinke's disease)
Lysyl Oxidase requires what metal? Cu+
fMet and Met are found in which organisms? fMet is attached to AUG of prokaryotes, Met is attached to AUG of eukaryotes.
Created by: jsad



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