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physiology bone

bone test

3 types of joints and examples 1. fibrous- no movement, skull at the sutures 2. cartilaginous- limited motion, intravertebral disks of the neck and spine 3. synovial- free movement, all other joints, have shock absornbing pads called meniscus and fluid filled sacs called bursae
osteoporosis occurs from not enough calcium salts or phosphorous, makes bones brittle and weak, women in 60's and 70's, exercise sunlight vitamin d and clacium help
difference between male and female skull skull- female skull is lighter and has less conspicuous muscular attachments. facial area is rounder, jaw is smaller and mastoid is less prominent
difference between male and female pelvic girdle female coxae are lighter, thinner, and have less obvious muscular attachments. the obtura foramen and acetubula are smaller and farther apart
difference between male and female pelvic cavity female is wider in all diameters shorter, roomier, and less funnel shaped.
difference between male and female sacrum female is wider, the first sacral vrtebra projects forward to a lesser degree, the sacral curvature is bent more sharply posteriorly
difference between male and female coccyx female is more moveable
ball and socket joint ball-shaped head fits into a cup-shaped cavity, allows rotational movement exp.-shoulder and hip
condyloid joint oval-shaped condyle fits into ab elliptical cavity, no rotation exp.-between metacarpals and philanges
gliding joint connecting surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved, sliding or twisting exp.-wrist or ankle
hinge joint convex fits into concave, flexion and extension(back and forth) exp.-elbows
pivot joint cylindrical surface into ring of bone and ligament, rotation around a central axis exp.- proximal ends of the radius and ulna
saddle joint both concave and convex regions; one surface fits the surface of the other, variety of movements exp.-thumb
flexion bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together( bending the at the knee)
extension straightening parts at a joint so that the angle increases and the parts move farther apart( straghtenin at the knee)
dorsiflexion bending the foot at the ankle toward the shin
plantar flexion bending the foot at the ankle toward the sole
hyperextension excess extension of the parts at a joint, beyond the anatomical position
abduction moving a part away from the midline (lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a right angle with the side of the body)
adduction moving a part toward the midline (returning the upper limb from the horizontal position to the side of the body)
rotation moving a part around an axis( turning the head from side to side)
circumduction moving a part so that its ends follow a circular path (moving the finger in a circular motion without moving the hand)
pronation turning the hand so that the palm is facing downward or posteriorly
supination turning the hand so that the palm is facing upward
eversion turning the foot so that the sole faces laterally
inversion turning the foot so that the sole faces medially
retraction moving a part backward (pulling the chin backward)
protraction moving a part forward(thrusting the chin forward)
elevation raising a part ( shrugging)
depression lowering a part (drooping the shoulders)
5 functions of bone 1.support and protection 2.blood cell production 3.store inorganic salts 4. provide movement 5.passage ways for blood vessels
5 active tissues 1.bone 2.blood 3.nervous 4.dense connective 5.cartilage
Created by: meekhaley